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Dinoseb (Ref: HOE 26150)
Last updated: 16/01/2021
(Also known as: DNBP; dinosebe; dinitro-general; DN 289)

SUMMARY
Dinoseb is a banned herbicide that was once widely used. It has a moderate aqueous solubility, is volatile and has a high potential for leaching to groundwater. It is not generally persistent in soil systems but can be persistent in water. It is highly toxic to mammals and may cause development/reproduction effects. Dinoseb is also a know irritant. It is highly toxic to birds, moderately toxic to fish but presents less of a risk to honeybees.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
GUS: High leachability; Drainflow: Mobile
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Birds acute ecotoxicity: High; Fish acute ecotoxicity: High; Fish chronic ecotoxicity: High
Human health
High alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: High; Reproduction/development effects
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An obsolete dinitrophenol herbicide that was used for post-emergence weed control in a variety of crops including cereals, vegetables and some soft fruit
Example pests controlled
Crabgrass; Barnyardgrass; Pigweed; Lambsquarters; Foxtails; Sorrel
Example applications
Soybeans; Cereals; Cotton; Fruit including citrus, grapes, bluebrries, currants, gooseberries; Nuts; Lucerne
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Obsolete, Banned
Introduction & key dates
1945, first reported
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A chiral molecule
Chemical formula
C₁₀H₁₂N₂O₅
Canonical SMILES
CCC(C)C1=CC(=CC(=C1O)[N+](=O)[O-])[N+](=O)[O-]
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
OWZPCEFYPSAJFR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10H12N2O5/c1-3-6(2)8-4-7(11(14)15)5-9(10(8)13)12(16)17/h4-6,13H,3H2,1-2H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
dinoseb Unstated isomer
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide
Substance group
Dinitrophenol
Minimum active substance purity
>95%
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Contact. Inhibits respiratory electron transport and is an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation via disruption of proton gradient - membrane disruption.
CAS RN
88-85-7
EC number
201-861-7
CIPAC number
46
US EPA chemical code
037505
PubChem CID
6950
CLP index number
609-025-00-7
Molecular mass
240.22
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
rac-2-[(2R)-butan-2-yl]-4,6-dinitrophenol
IUPAC name
(RS)-2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol
CAS name
2-(1-methylpropyl)-4,6-dinitrophenol
Other status information
Chemical subject to PIC regulations; Marine Pollutant; Rotterdam Convention (Class O)
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
M
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
24
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Dark reddish brown solid or orange viscous liquid depending upon temperature
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • DowElanco
  • Hoeschst
  • Schering
Example products using this active
  • Aretit
  • Ivosit
  • Supersevtox
  • Premerge
  • Caldon: Chemox
  • Subitex
  • Nitrapone
Formulation and application details
Available in a variety of formulations including soluble liquids and emulsifiable concentrates.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
52
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
480000
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
270000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
Melting point (°C)
38
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
177
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.95 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.29
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.35
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
4.62
DW4 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
4 = Verified data
-
Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
6.7
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
6.01 X 10-04
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
18
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
30
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
General literature data indicates DT₅₀ of 2 to 6 weeks
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
T4 T = UN EPFA database
4 = Verified data
Stable
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
H3 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mobile
Koc
30
Notes and range
Other sources: 117-123 mL g⁻¹ (R3)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
3.73 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
6.36 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Low Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
1.8
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
(whole body)
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
25
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
9.5
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anas platyrhynchos
High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.044
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Salmonidae
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.059
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Pimephales promelas 32 day
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.24
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.170
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Americamysis bahia
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
1.201
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chlamydomonas moewusii 7 day
Low
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
Highly toxic
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Highly toxic
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
25
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.0011
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Minimal risk due to substance being obsolete
Occupational
Readily absorbed through the skin - PPE/PPC required
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Highly hazardous
USEPA - possible human carcinogen
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
An oxidising agent
CLP classification 2013
Health: H301, H311, H319, H360Df
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Reproduction risk category 2 and 3: R62, R61
T - Toxic: R24/25
Xi - Irritant: R36
H - Handling risks: R44
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S45, S53, S60, S61
WHO Classification
Ib (Highly hazardous / Highly hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
dinoseb
French
dinosèbe
German
Dinoseb
Danish
dinoseb
Italian
dinoseb
Spanish
dinoseb
Greek
dinoseb
Polish
dinoseb
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
dinoseb

Record last updated: 16/01/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242