Top Environmental Fate Ecotoxicology Human Health Translations
Home
A to Z: All
A to Z: Insecticides
A to Z: Herbicides
A to Z: Fungicides
A to Z: Other product constituents
Search
Support information
Purchasing and licensing
Difenzoquat metilsulfate (Ref: AC 84777)
Last updated: 31/05/2018
(Also known as: difenzoquat methyl sulphate; difenzoquat methyl sulfate; CL84777; BAS 450H; difenzoquat metilsulphate)

GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A post-emergence quarternary ammonium herbicide for wild oat control
Example pests controlled
Wild oats; Powdery mildew
Example applications
Cereals including wheat, barley; Alfalfa; Maize; Clover seed crops
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1982, USA
UK regulatory status
UK approval status
Not approved
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 91/414 Status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) or known to be used (#) in the following EU-27 Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₈H₂0N₂O₄S
Canonical SMILES
CN1C(=CC(=[N+]1C)C2=CC=CC=C2)C3=CC=CC=C3.COS(=O)(=O)[O-]
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
XQEMNBNCQVQXMO-UHFFFAOYSA-M
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C17H17N2.CH4O4S/c1-18-16(14-9-5-3-6-10-14)13-17(19(18)2)15-11-7-4-8-12-15;1-5-6(2,3)4/h3-13H,1-2H3;1H3,(H,2,3,4)/q+1;/p-1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide, Fungicide
Substance group
Pyrazolium
Minimum active substance purity
>96%
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Selective, absorbed by foliage. Acts via the rapid destruction of cell membranes.
CAS RN
43222-48-6
EC number
256-152-5
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
106401
PubChem CID
39424
Molecular mass
360.43
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
1,2-dimethyl-3,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-2-ium methyl sulfate
IUPAC name
1,2-dimethyl-3,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrazolium methyl sulfate
CAS name
1,2-dimethyl-3,5-diphenylpyrazolium methyl sulfate
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Z
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
-
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not known
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Colourless crystals
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Finaven
  • Yeh-Yan-Ku
  • Avenge
Example products using this active
  • Amvac Chemical Corp
  • BASF
  • King Tech
  • American Cyanamid
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as a water miscible liquid or soluble powder
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
765000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
360000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Dichloromethane
-
500000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chloroform
-
558000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Methanol
-
9800
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
Melting point (°C)
157
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
82
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
(open cup)
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.45 X 10-01 Calculated -
Log P
-0.61
T4 T = UN EPFA database
4 = Verified data
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
0.8
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
7
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C
0.01
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C
5.70 X 10-11
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index
0.03 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.31 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
90
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
100
DW4 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
4 = Verified data
Persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Other sources: DT₅₀ 3 months (R3)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
W4 W = French database provided by ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal
4 = Verified data
Stable
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
30000
Notes and range
Other sources: Log Koc 4.49-5.80
Freundlich
Kf
166
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
(for difenzoquat)
Non-mobile
Kfoc
9702
1/n
1.39
Notes and range
Kf range 29-664 mL g⁻¹; Kfoc range 1740-33200 mL g⁻¹; 1/n range 1.05-1.54; Soils=9
pH sensitivity
-
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
20
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
373
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 year
-
(ppm diet)
500 -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 4640
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
694
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
2.63
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.54
F1 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
1 = Estimated data with little or no verification
Unknown species
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
36
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 400
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
Harmless
AA2 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Chrysoperla carnea
-
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
373
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
3540
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.36
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat 4 hr
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.0005
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
JMPR 1970
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Moderately toxic
May cause irreversible eye damage
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Hygroscopic
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S60, S61
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
2588
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
difenzoquat metilsulfate
French
-
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
-
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 31/05/2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242