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acrylonitrile (Ref: ENT 54)
** cyano ether ** vinyl cyanide ** propene nitrile ** 2-propenenitrle ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Acrylonitrile is a fumigant insecticide that is not approved for use within the EU and is now considered obsolete. It is highly soluble in water and miscible with most organic solvents. It has a high potential for leaching to groundwater. It is not expected to be persistant in soil systems. Acrylonitrile has a high mammalian toxicity and is carcinogenic It is also a mutagen which may also cause adverse reproduction &/or development effects. Little is known about its ecotoxicology but it is moderately toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for acrylonitrile

Description: An obsolete pesticide that was used as a fumigant for insect control. It was also used for spot treatments in flour mills and bakeries.

Example pests controlled: Mites; Japanese beetle; Cigarette beetle; Tobacco moth; Flour beetle; Grain beetle

Example applications: Stored grain; Dried fruit and nuts; Harvested tobacco; Food processing sites; Flour mills

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Obsolete

Introduction & key dates: -

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Not applicable
Date inclusion expires Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) Not applicable
Listed in EU database No

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C3H3N
Canonical SMILES C=CC#N
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) NLHHRLWOUZZQLW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C3H3N/c1-2-3-4/h2H,1H2
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

Click to access the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) website
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams:
Common Name Relationship Link
Acrylonitrile - Click here for the CCDC structure diagram

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Insecticide, Bactericide
Substance group Unclassified
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Respiratory action.
CAS RN 107-13-1
EC number 203-466-5
CIPAC number -
US EPA chemical code 000601
PubChem CID 7855
CLP index number 608-003-00-4
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 53.06
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) prop-2-enenitrile
IUPAC name acrylonitrile
CAS name acrylonitrile
Other status information Not applicable
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not known
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Colourless to pale yellow liquid with a garlic type odour
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • American Cyanamid Co., Degesh
  • Stauffer
Example products using this active
  • VCN
  • Ventox
  • Acritet
  • Acrylon
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Fumigant.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for acrylonitrile

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 76000 R4 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 100000 R4 - Methanol -
100000 R4 - Ethyl acetate -
100000 R4 - Acetone -
100000 R4 - Heptane -
Melting point (oC) -84 R4 -
Boiling point (oC) 77 R4 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) - - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.20 X 10-01 Calculated -
Log P -0.92 R4 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 0.81 R4 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC - - -
Note:
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 1.37 X 1007 L3 Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 0.063 R4 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 3.58 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 2.82 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 15 F3 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note Literature states degradation in activated sewage sludge is complete in 20 days
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - R4 Very mobile
Koc 9.0
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
2-cyanolethylene oxide - - - -
glycidonitrile - Rat - -
pyruvonitrile - Rat - -
cyanoacetaldehyde - Rat - -
cyanoacetic acid - Rat - -
2-cyanoethanol - Rat - -
glycoladehyde - Rat - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for acrylonitrile

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 48 R4 Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 78.0 R4 Rat High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 10.1 R4 Pimephales promelas Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 7.6 R4 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.5 P4 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms Acute LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg-1) - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for acrylonitrile

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 78.0 R4 Rat High
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) - - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints Intravenous LD50 = 69 mg kg-1 R4 Rabbit -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational Acrylonitrile will permeate through the skin
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A0; B0; C0; D0; E1

-

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues May cause light jaundice, leucoytosis, headaches and gastro-intestinal problems
Liver and kidney toxicant
IARC group 2B carcinogen
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes May emit toxic fumes of cyanide on heating
May be explosive under some conditions
Flammable
CLP classification 2013 Health: H350, H331, H311, H301, H335, H315
Environment: H411
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Carcinogen category 2: R45
T - Toxic: R23/24/25
Xn - Harmful: R43
Xi - Irritant: R37/38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R51/53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases -
WHO Classification FM - Fumigant, not classified
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for acrylonitrile

Language Name
English acrylonitrile
French nitrile acrylique
German Acrylnitril
Danish -
Italian Nitrile acrilico
Spanish -
Greek -
Slovenian -
Polish -
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch acrylnitril

Record last updated: Monday 09 December 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk