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Disulfoton (Ref: ENT 23347)
Last updated: 18/01/2021
(Also known as: M 74; ethylthiodemeton; thiodemeton; dithiodemeton; dithiosystox)

SUMMARY
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Drainflow: Slightly mobile; Potential for particle bound transport: Medium
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Birds acute ecotoxicity: High; Fish acute ecotoxicity: High; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: High; Daphnia chronic ecotoxicity: High; Bees acute contact ecotoxicity: High
Human health
High alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: High; Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An organophosphate aphicide and insecticide used to sucking insects on agricultural crops
Example pests controlled
Aphids; Thrips; Mealybugs; Spider mites; Leaf miners; Leaf hoppers; Beet flies
Example applications
Cotton; Tobacco; Sugarbeet; Cole crops; Peanuts; Corn; Wheat; Ornamentals; Cereals grains; Potatoes
Efficacy & activity
Disulfoton is an organothiophosphate insecticide and acaricide that is not approved for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, is moderately volatile and, based on its chemical properties it would not normally be expected to leach to groundwater. It can be persistent in some soil systems but would not normally be persistent in water bodies. It is highly toxic to mammals, a cholinesterase inhibitor, a neurotoxicant and there are some concerns regarding its carcinogenity. It is moderately or highly toxic to most fauna.
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1956
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Also used in
Australia, USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₈H₁₉O₂PS₃
Canonical SMILES
CCOP(=S)(OCC)SCCSCC
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
SYJFEGQWDCRVNX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C8H19O2PS3/c1-4-9-11(12,10-5-2)14-8-7-13-6-3/h4-8H2,1-3H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Acaricide
Substance group
Organophosphate
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Systemic absorbed via roots. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor.
CAS RN
298-04-4
EC number
206-054-3
CIPAC number
152
US EPA chemical code
032501
PubChem CID
3118
Molecular mass
274.40
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
O,O-diethyl S-[2-(ethylsulfanyl)ethyl] phosphorodithioate
IUPAC name
O,O-diethyl S-2-ethylthioethyl phosphorodithioate
CAS name
O,O-diethyl S-[2-(ethylthio)ethyl] phosphorodithioate
Other status information
Potential groundwater contaminant; Marine Pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
1B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Myzus persicae, Phorodon humuli, Rhizoglyphus robini, Tetranychus kanzawai, Leucoptera coffeella, many others
Physical state
Yellow oil
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Bayer
  • Sandoz
  • Mobay
Example products using this active
  • Disyston
  • Frumin AL
  • Solvirex
Formulation and application details
Available in a variety of formulations includign emulsifiable concentrates, dry seed dressings and granules
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
25
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
n-Hexane
-
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Dichloromethane
-
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Isopropanol
-
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Toluene
-
Melting point (°C)
-25
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
133
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
8.91 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.95
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.14
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
7.2
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.60 X 10-01
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
30
M4 M = GLEAMS Model database (Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems) (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
2
M4 M = GLEAMS Model database (Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems) (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
4
P2 P = Other governments and regulators
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Moderately fast
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
300
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Persistent
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
15
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
15
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slow
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
H3 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slightly mobile
Koc
1345
Notes and range
Other sources: 600 mL g⁻¹ (DW3)
Freundlich
Kf
39.5
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
-
Kfoc
-
1/n
1.09
Notes and range
General literature data: Kf range 15.5-24.3 mL g⁻¹, mean of 8 values for 2 loam soils.
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
0.26 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
6.29 X 10-04 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Slightly mobile Calculated -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
disulfoton sulfoxide
Soil 0.05 -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
460
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Whole fish
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2.6
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 year
-
(ppm diet)
1 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
39
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.039
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lepomis macrochirus
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.22
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss 35 day LOEC
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.013
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.00004
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.1
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Americamysis bahia
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.036
F2 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Unknown species
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.01
Q1 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
1 = Estimated data with little or no verification
Unknown species
Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
0.96
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Apis mellifera
High
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
4.1
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Apis mellifera
Moderate
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 1.0
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Bombus spp.
Moderate
Literature values range 1.0-6.0 µg bee⁻¹
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
180
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2.6
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
3.6
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.015
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.0003
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
JMPR 1996
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.003
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
JMPR 1996
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I; List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
Rapidly absorbed through the skin
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E2 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
2 = Mixed/ambiguous results
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found No data found No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
No data found No data found  
General human health issues
No further information available
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H300, H310
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
T+ - Very toxic: R27/28
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S1/2, S28, S36/37, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification
Ia (Extremely hazardous)
UN Number
3018
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
disulfoton
French
disulfoton
German
Disulfoton
Danish
disulfoton
Italian
disulfoton
Spanish
disulfoton
Greek
disulfoton
Polish
disulfoton
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
disulfoton

Record last updated: 18/01/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242