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GET ADDITIONAL DATA HERE!
forchlorfenuron (Ref: KT 30)
** SKW 20010 ** CPPU ** forchlorfenur ** 4PU-30 ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for forchlorfenuron

Description: A cytokinin growth stimulating substance used to enhance fruit set, size and increase yields

Example pests controlled: Growth

Example applications: Grapes; Kiwifruit; Apples; Pears; Melons; Pumpkins

Efficacy & activity: Shown to be effective via field trials and extensive use across both EU and non-EU countries.

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: circa 1980

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Spain/Greece
Date inclusion expires 31/05/2033
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism None
Chemical formula C12H10ClN3O
Canonical SMILES C1=CC=C(C=C1)NC(=O)NC2=CC(=NC=C2)Cl
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) GPXLRLUVLMHHIK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C12H10ClN3O/c13-11-8-10(6-7-14-11)16-12(17)15-9-4-2-1-3-5-9/h1-8H,(H2,14,15,16,17)
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

Click to access the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) website
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams:
Common Name Relationship Link
Forchlorfenuron - Click here for the CCDC structure diagram

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Plant growth regulator
Substance group Phenylurea
Minimum active substance purity >=978 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU DAR 2016 - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Absorbed by most plant parts and acts synergistically with natural auxins to promote cell division and growth
CAS RN 68157-60-8
EC number -
CIPAC number 633
US EPA chemical code 128819
PubChem CID 93379
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 247.68
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea
CAS name N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N'-phenylurea
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White crystalline powder
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Valent U.S.A. Corp.
  • Fujian Sannong Group Co. Ltd.
Example products using this active
  • Prestige
  • PreStage
  • Trigger
  • Sitofex
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as a soluble powder or emulsifiable concentrate.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for forchlorfenuron

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 39 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 108 A5 - Toluene -
74000 A5 - Isopropanol -
169000 A5 - Acetone -
0.03 A5 - Hexane -
Melting point (oC) 165 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes on boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 269 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.00 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P 3.3 A5 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.38 L3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC n/a A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 4.60 X 10-05 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 2.92 X 10-07 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 2.46 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.61 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated High
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Max @ 264nm = 35100 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 72.3 A5 at 20 degC -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 243.6 A5 Persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 243.6 A5 Persistent
DT50 (field) 1119 F3 Very persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 802.6 A3 -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU 2017 Dossier: Lab studies DT50 53-1218 days, DT90 range 184 - >1000 days; Other literature DT50 = 1119 mL/g
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 7.3 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 1.4-17.4 days, 3 field crops, various matrices, n=4
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value Stable F4 -
Note Stable pH 5 to pH 9 at 20 and 25 degC, 30 days
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable F3 -
Note Data for pH 5, 25 deg C, 30 days
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 158 A5 Slow
Water phase only DT50 (days) 6.93 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - US3 Slightly mobile
Koc 1100
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 9.59 A5 Slightly mobile
Kfoc 1557
1/n 0.72
Notes and range EU 2017 Dossier: Kf range 2.13 - 39.8 mL/g, Kfoc range 852 - 3320 mL/g, 1/n range 0.68 - 0.76, Soils= 4
pH sensitivity None

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
4-amino-2-chloropyridine This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.599   Major fraction; Relevant


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for forchlorfenuron

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 6.1 A5 Low potential
CT50 (days) 0.26 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 4917 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 84 A5 Rat High
(ppm diet) 1000 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2250 A5 Colinus virginianus Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 8.8 A5 Lepomis macrochirus Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 2.0 A4 Oncorhynchus mykiss, 28 day Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 8 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 2.0 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 22.15 A5 Lemna gibba Low
Non-target plants > 10 A5 Avena sativa
Vegetative vigour, ER50
as g/ha
-
> 10 A5 Avena sativa
Seedling emergence, ER50
as g/ha
-
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 3.3 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 5.23 A4 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, 72 hrs Low
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 80.6 A5 Apis mellifera Moderate
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 80.6 A5 Apis mellifera Moderate
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 500 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 0.3 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms Acute LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg-1) 3.72 A5 Folsomia candida -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 12.0 >
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 12 >
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for forchlorfenuron

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 4917 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 3.0 A5 Rat (dust, whole body) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.05 A5 Mouse, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.5 A5 Rabbit, SF=100 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) 0.5 A5 Rabbit, SF=100 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.16 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 75 A3 default -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public Negligible risk when used as directed
Occupational Low risk for workers and operators
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A3; B0; C0; D0; E3

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

General human health issues May cause protein metabolism disturbances, emphysema and weight loss
Possible kidney & liver toxicant
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
CLP classification 2013 Health: H351
Environment: H411
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xi - Irritant: R36/37/38
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S26, S36
WHO Classification NL - Not listed
UN Number 3077
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packging Group III (minor danager)


TRANSLATIONS

for forchlorfenuron

Language Name
English forchlorfenuron
French forchlorfenuron
German Forchlorfenuron
Danish forchlorfenuron
Italian -
Spanish forclorfenuron
Greek -
Slovenian forklorfenuron
Polish forchlorfenuron
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch -

Record last updated: Wednesday 06 November 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk