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Halofenozide (Ref: RH 0345)
Last updated: 09/02/2021
(Also known as: halofenoxide; CL 290816)

SUMMARY
Halofenozide is a soil insecticide without EU regulatory approval for use. It has a low aqueous solubility and, based on its chemical properties, it may have a tendency to leach to groundwater. It can be persistent in soil systems and, under certain conditions, may also persist in aquatic systems. Whilst it has a relatively low mammalian toxicity there is some concern regarding its potential to bioaccumulate. It is moderately toxic to many aquatic species, honey bees and earthworms but is only slightly toxic to birds.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
Persistent; GUS: High leachability
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Fish chronic ecotoxicity: High
Human health
Moderate alert:
Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A insecticide for the larval stage control of insects on grass
Example pests controlled
White grub larvae including those from Japanese beetles, Northern and Northern masked chafers, Oriental beetles, Lepidoptera karvae including cutworms, sod wetworms and armyworms
Example applications
Lawns; Golf courses; Turf
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Obsolete
Introduction & key dates
1997
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Not applicable
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
No
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₈H₁₉ClN₂O₂
Canonical SMILES
CC(C)(C)N(C(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)C2=CC=C(C=C2)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
CNKHSLKYRMDDNQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C18H19ClN2O2/c1-18(2,3)21(17(23)14-7-5-4-6-8-14)20-16(22)13-9-11-15(19)12-10-13/h4-12H,1-3H3,(H,20,22)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Insect growth regulator
Substance group
Unclassified
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Systemic with stomach action. Disrupts the hormonal systems that control insect growth and moulting. Ecdysone agonist /disruptor.
CAS RN
112226-61-6
EC number
431-600-4
CIPAC number
None allocated
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
114994
Molecular mass
330.81
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
N-tert-butyl-N'-(4-chlorobenzoyl)benzohydrazide
CAS name
4-chlorobenzoic acid 2-benzoyl-2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)hydrazide
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
18A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
None identified
Physical state
White crystalline solid with mild amino odour
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Mach 2
  • Natural Guard Grub Control
Example products using this active
  • Dow AgroSciences
  • VPG Texas USA
Formulation and application details
-
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
12.3
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
31000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Isopropanol
-
154000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Cyclohexanone
-
Melting point (°C)
200
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.19 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.34
K3 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
0.46
F2 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
219
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
220
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
DT₅₀ 219 days aerobic, 60.0 days anaerobic; Other sources: 129 days (DW4); 68 (silt loam) to 818 (sand loam) (F4)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
52
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 5.0-100 days, grass, n=2
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
10
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately fast
Note
Value for pond water
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Note
pH variable: DT₅₀ 310 days at pH 5, 481 days at pH 7, 226 days at pH 9
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Moderately mobile
Koc
250
Notes and range
EU dossier 1031 mL g⁻¹ (US3, DW3), 224-279 mL g⁻¹ (L3); 149-360 mL g⁻¹ (F4)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
3.75 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
9.48 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Moderately mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
100
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Worst case data
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2850
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2250
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Colinus virginianus
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 8.6
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.029
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Gambusia affinis 15 day
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 3.2
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.2
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 2.9
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Americamysis bahia
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.63
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 100
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 980
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2850
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
2.7
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause methemoglobinemia
Possible blood, liver and CNS toxicant
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H317
Environment: H411
EC Risk Classification
Not classified: Obsolete
EC Safety Classification
Not classified: Obsolete
WHO Classification
III (Slightly hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
halofenozide
French
halofenozide
German
Halofenozid
Danish
halofenozid
Italian
halofenozide
Spanish
halofenozide
Greek
-
Polish
halofenozyd
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 09/02/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242