Top Environmental Fate Ecotoxicology Human Health Translations
Home
A to Z: All
A to Z: Insecticides
A to Z: Herbicides
A to Z: Fungicides
A to Z: Other product constituents
Search
Support information
Edit history
Purchasing and licensing
Heptachlor (Ref: ENT 15152)
Last updated: 17/08/2021
(Also known as: heptachlore; E3314; H-34; OMS 193)

SUMMARY
Heptachlor in an insecticide. It has a low aqueous solubility but is highly soluble in most organic solvents. It is volatile and has low potential for leaching to groundwater. heptachlor can be persistent in soil systems but is not generally persistent in water systems. It is moderately toxic to mammals and may bioaccumulate. heptachlor may also cause adverse reproduction/development effects and is a neurotoxin. It is moderately toxic to birds but highly toxic to honeybees and most aquatic species.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
Persistent; Potential for particle bound transport: High
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: High; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: High; Bees acute contact ecotoxicity: High
Human health
High alert:
Carcinogen; Reproduction/development effects; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An obsolete insecticide once used to kill termites, ants and other insects in agricultural and domestic situations
Example pests controlled
Ants; Termites; Cutworms; Maggots; Spittlebugs; Weevils; Wireworms; Japanese beetles; Mosquitoes
Example applications
Corn; Sorghum; Small grains
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Considered obsolete but may be available in some countries; Banned in many countries
Introduction & key dates
1951, first reported
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
-
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Also used in
Costa Rica
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A molecule with 5 chiral centres
Chemical formula
C₁₀H₅Cl₇
Canonical SMILES
C1=CC(C2C1C3(C(=C(C2(C3(Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
FRCCEHPWNOQAEU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10H5Cl7/c11-4-2-1-3-5(4)9(15)7(13)6(12)8(3,14)10(9,16)17/h1-5H
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
heptachlor epoxide Metabolite
heptachlor -
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide
Substance group
Organochlorine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Persistent, non-systemic contact and stomach poison with some fumigant action. Is a chloride channel-blocking agent.
CAS RN
76-44-8
EC number
200-962-3
CIPAC number
36
US EPA chemical code
044801
PubChem CID
3589
Molecular mass
373.32
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
1,4,5,6,7,8,8-heptachloro-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-methanoindene
CAS name
1,4,5,6,7,8,8-heptachloro-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-methano-1H-indene
Other status information
Chemical subject to PIC regulations; POP - regulated by Stockholm Convention; LRTAP Annex 1; OSPAR soc; Severe Marine Pollutant; Rotterdam Convention (Class O)
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
2A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Anthonomus grandis, Delia brassicae, Diabrotica longicornis, Psilia rosae, Conoderus falli, Diabrotica virgifera, many others
Physical state
White to tan coloured crystals
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Velsicol Chemical Corp.
Example products using this active
  • Gold crest
  • Heptamul
  • Heptox
  • Drinox
Formulation and application details
Available in a wide variety of formulations including wettable powders, emulsifiable concentrates, dusts and oil solutions
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.056
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
750000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
1060000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Benzene
-
1020000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Xylene
-
45000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
Melting point (°C)
95
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
135
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.75 X 1005 Calculated -
Log P
5.44
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.58
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
53
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
3.53 X 1002
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
285
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
250
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Other sources: DT₅₀ around 2 yrs (R3), 9-10 months (R3)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
4.8
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 1.0-13.5 days, 4 field crops, various matrices, n=5
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
1
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
24000
Notes and range
Other sources: 21878 mL g⁻¹ (R3)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-0.91 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g⁻¹ are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Non-mobile Calculated -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
heptachlor epoxide (Ref: ENT 25584)
Soil - Not assessed under 91/414 or 1107/2009
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
2430
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
(whole body)
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 147
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L1 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
1 = Estimated data with little or no verification
Rat
-
(ppm diet)
5 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anas platyrhynchos
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.007
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.042
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.027
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 0.526
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
High
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
0.0168
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Trigona spinipes
High
Mode of exposure
Contact
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 147
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
195
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
2.0
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.0001
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
JMPR
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I; List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Risk of exposure via food is now considered negligible
Occupational
May be absorbed through intact skin
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
UK statutory standard for protection of drinking water: 0.030 µg l⁻¹; EU Directive 2008/105/EC standard for protection of drinking water: 0.030 µg l⁻¹
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
UK EA QS database 2018
-
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
0.03
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
UK EA QS database 2018
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Bioaccumulates
Liver toxicant
Endocrine issues - Binding to cellular estrogen and androgen receptors
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Incompatible with alkaline substances
CLP classification 2013
Health: H301, H311, H351, H373
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 3: R40
T - Toxic: R24/25, R33
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S1/2, S36/37, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
heptachlor
French
heptachlore
German
Heptachlor
Danish
heptachlor
Italian
eptaclor
Spanish
heptaclor
Greek
heptachlor
Polish
heptachlor
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
heptachloor

Record last updated: 17/08/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242