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PhD Oportunity with Syngenta & the University of Hertfordshire

ioxynil (Ref: ACP 63-303)
** M&B 8873 ** jioxynil ** bantrol ** ioxynil phenol ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for ioxynil

Description: A herbicide used for post-emergence control of various weeds. Also pesticide transformation product.

Example pests controlled: Annual broad-leaved weeds

Example applications: Cereals; Onions; Leeks; Garlic; Shallots; Flax; Sugarcane; Forage grasses; Lawns & turf

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: circa 1966

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur France
Date inclusion expires Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) -
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Herbicide, Metabolite
Metabolite Type Soil
Substance group Hydroxybenzonitrile
Minimum active substance purity 960 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Selective, systemic with contact action, acts by inhibiting photosynthesis at Photosystem II
CAS RN 1689-83-4
EC number 216-881-1
CIPAC number 86
US EPA chemical code 353200
PubChem CID 15530
Isomerism None
Chemical formula C7H3I2NO
Canonical SMILES C1=C(C=C(C(=C1I)O)I)C#N
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) NRXQIUSYPAHGNM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C7H3I2NO/c8-5-1-4(3-10)2-6(9)7(5)11/h1-2,11H
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 370.91
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name 4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl cyanide
CAS name 4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodobenzonitrile
Other status information Marine Pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards UK Environment Agency non-statutory standard for the protection of freshwater and saltwater aquatic life: 10 ug/L as annual average; 100 ug/L as max acceptable conc.]
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) C3
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) 6
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White crystalline solid
Related substances & organisms

Can be a metabolite of:
Parent Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
ioxynil octanoate Soil   0.526   Major fraction, Relevant
ioxynil lithium Soil     Major fraction, Relevant
ioxynil sodium Soil     Major fraction, Relevant

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Bayer CropScience
  • Nufarm UK
  • Dow AgroChemicals
Example products using this active
  • Totril
  • Hawk
  • Hocks
  • Sanoxynil
  • Certrol
  • Actril
  • Trevespan
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Often supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate or aqueous concentrate.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for ioxynil

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 3034 A4 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 73500 A5 - Acetone -
22200 A5 - Methanol -
5800 A5 - Xylene -
37500 A5 - n-Heptane -
Melting point (oC) 207.8 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) - - -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A4 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.58 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P 2.2 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 2.72 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 4.1 A5 -
Note: Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 0.00204 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 1.50 X 10-05 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.46 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 9.66 X 10-04 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 237.2nm = 28030, 287nm = 17380 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 6 Q3 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 2 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 5 Y4 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier Lab studies DT50 range 1.5-2.5 days
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 5 A5 Moderately fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable pH 5 to pH 9 at 22 degC, 10 days
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 4.6 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 3.5 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 4.7 A4 Moderately mobile
Kfoc 303
1/n 0.92
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 1.25-7.60 mL/g, Kfoc range 112-633 mL/g, 1/n range 0.902-0.958, Soils=4
pH sensitivity Yes - lower the pH the greater the adsorption

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
3,5-di-iodo-4-hydroxybenzamide This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.105   Major fraction, Relevant
3,5-di-iodo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.204   Major fraction, Relevant


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for ioxynil

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 29 A5 (Whole fish) Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 130 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 1 A5 Rat High
(ppm diet) 20 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 62 A5 Colinus virginianus High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) 1346 mg kg feed-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 8.5 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 3.2 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 3.9 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.013 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.013 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.027 A5 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 24 A4 Unknown species Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 10.1 A5 Moderate
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 60 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 20.0 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 55.6 Mortality
Dose: 0.625 kg ha-1
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi, adult
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 98.7 Mortality
Dose: 0.625 kg ha-1
A5 Typhlodromus pyri, protonymph
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 2.94 mg ioxynil octanoate/kg soil
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for ioxynil

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 130 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 1050 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.38 A5 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.005 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.04 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.01 A5 Rat, 90 day, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 4 A5 -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Consumers may be exposed via ingestion of contaminated food
Occupational May be absorbed through the skin
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Possible thyroid toxicant
May cause gastroenteritis, fever and hyperthermia

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes IMDG Transport Code is usually 3
CLP classification 2013 Health: H301, H312, H319, H331, H361d, H373
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Reproduction risk category 3: R63
T - Toxic: R23/25
Xn - Harmful: R21, R48/22
Xi - Irritant: R36
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S1/2, S36/37, S45, S60, S61, S63
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) II - Warning - Moderately toxic
UN Number 2588 for active, products usually 1993
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for ioxynil

Language Name
English ioxynil
French ioxynil
German Ioxynil
Danish ioxynil
Italian ioxinil
Spanish ioxinil
Greek ioxynil
Slovenian ioksinil
Polish joksynil
Swedish ioxinil
Hungarian ioxinil
Dutch ioxynil

Record last updated: Wednesday 23 May 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk