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anthraquinone
** anthradione ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Anthraquinone is a substance used as a bird repellent which no longer has approval for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, volatile with a low risk of leaching to groundwater. it is non-persistent in soil but can be persistent in water under certain conditions. It shows a low mammalian toxicity but there are some concerns regarding its potential to bioaccumulate. No serious risks to human health have been reported. It is moderately toxic to birds, most aquatic organisms and earthworms. No data is available regarding the risk to honeybees.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for anthraquinone

Description: Substance used primarily as a bird repellent formulated as a seed treatment

Example pests controlled: Birds such as rooks and crows

Example applications: Agricultural cropping

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Unknown

Introduction & key dates: 1951, France; 1999, USA

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Belgium
Date inclusion expires Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) -
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C14H8O2
Canonical SMILES C1=CC=C2C(=C1)C(=O)C3=CC=CC=C3C2=O
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) RZVHIXYEVGDQDX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C14H8O2/c15-13-9-5-1-2-6-10(9)14(16)12-8-4-3-7-11(12)13/h1-8H
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

Click to access the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) website
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams:
Common Name Relationship Link
Anthraquinone - Click here for the CCDC structure diagram

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Repellent
Substance group Unclassified
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Induces retching in birds and so deters attack
CAS RN 84-65-1
EC number 201-549-0
CIPAC number 290
US EPA chemical code 122701
PubChem CID 6780
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 208.21
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) anthracene-9,10-dione
IUPAC name anthracene-9,10-dione
CAS name 9,10-anthracenedione
Other status information Chemical subject to PIC regulations; PAN listed Highly Hazardous Chemical
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Yellow to green-grey crystals with a weak odour.
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Arkon Life Sciences
  • Bayer CropScience
Example products using this active
  • Flight Control Plus
  • Corbit
  • Morkit
  • Repell
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as a seed treatment.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for anthraquinone

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 0.084 W4 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 2314 C4 - Benzene -
9030 C4 - Chloroform -
3520 C4 - Ethanol -
2598 C4 - Toluene -
Melting point (oC) 286 L3 -
Boiling point (oC) 377 V3 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) 185 V3 - (closed cup) -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 3.31 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P 3.52 L3 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.44 L3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 7.4 V3 -
Note: Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 5.00 X 10-03 C4 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 3.50 X 10-05 C4 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.45 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 7.12 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 8 L3 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note Best available data
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable W4 -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - W3 Slightly mobile
Koc 3215
Notes and range Best available data
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for anthraquinone

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 100 Q2 Cyprinidae Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 L3 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - L3 Rat -
(ppm diet) 15 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2000 L3 Coturnix japonica Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 72 L3 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 10 L3 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 0.942 F4 Americamysis bahia Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.2 F2 Lemna gibba, 7 day Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 10 L3 Scenedemus subspicatus Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 1000 L3 Eisenia foetida Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms Acute LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg-1) - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for anthraquinone

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 L3 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 5000 L3 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 1.33 AC4 Rat, 4 hr -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational -
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A0; B0; C0; D0; E0

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

-

General human health issues IARC Group 2B carcinogen
May be harmful by ingestion, inhalation and through skin contact
May cause dermatitis
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes No information available
CLP classification 2013 Health: H350
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R43
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases -
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for anthraquinone

Language Name
English anthraquinone
French anthraquinone
German Anthrachinon
Danish anthraquinon
Italian antrachinone
Spanish antraquinona
Greek -
Slovenian antrakvinon
Polish antrachinon
Swedish -
Hungarian antrachinon
Dutch -

Record last updated: Friday 28 June 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk