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Anthraquinone
Last updated: 19/05/2021
(Also known as: anthradione)

SUMMARY
Anthraquinone is a substance used as a bird repellent which no longer has approval for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, volatile with a low risk of leaching to groundwater. it is non-persistent in soil but can be persistent in water under certain conditions. It shows a low mammalian toxicity but there are some concerns regarding its potential to bioaccumulate. No serious risks to human health have been reported. It is moderately toxic to birds, most aquatic organisms and earthworms. No data is available regarding the risk to honeybees.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Drainflow: Slightly mobile; Potential for particle bound transport: Medium
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate
Human health
Moderate alert:
Possible Carcinogen; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Substance used primarily as a bird repellent formulated as a seed treatment
Example pests controlled
Birds such as rooks and crows
Example applications
Agricultural cropping
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
1951, France; 1999, USA
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Belgium
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₄H₈O₂
Canonical SMILES
C1=CC=C2C(=C1)C(=O)C3=CC=CC=C3C2=O
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
RZVHIXYEVGDQDX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C14H8O2/c15-13-9-5-1-2-6-10(9)14(16)12-8-4-3-7-11(12)13/h1-8H
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
anthraquinone -
General status
Pesticide type
Repellent
Substance group
Unclassified
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Induces retching in birds and so deters attack
CAS RN
84-65-1
EC number
201-549-0
CIPAC number
290
US EPA chemical code
122701
PubChem CID
6780
Molecular mass
208.21
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
anthracene-9,10-dione
IUPAC name
anthracene-9,10-dione
CAS name
9,10-anthracenedione
Other status information
Chemical subject to PIC regulations; PAN listed Highly Hazardous Chemical
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Yellow to green-grey crystals with a weak odour.
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Arkon Life Sciences
  • Bayer CropScience
Example products using this active
  • Flight Control Plus
  • Corbit
  • Morkit
  • Repell
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as a seed treatment
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.084
W4 W = French database provided by ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
2314
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Benzene
-
9030
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Chloroform
-
3520
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Ethanol
-
2598
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Toluene
-
Melting point (°C)
286
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
377
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
185
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
(closed cup)
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
3.31 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.52
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.44
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
7.4
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
5.00 X 10-03
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
3.50 X 10-05
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
8
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
W4 W = French database provided by ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal
4 = Verified data
Stable
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
W3 W = French database provided by ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slightly mobile
Koc
3215
Notes and range
Best available data
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
0.45 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
7.12 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Slightly mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
100
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Cyprinidae
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
(ppm diet)
15 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Coturnix japonica
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 72
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 10
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.942
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Americamysis bahia
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
0.2
F2 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Lemna gibba 7 day
Moderate
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
10
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Scenedemus subspicatus
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Eisenia foetida
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
5000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
1.33
AC4 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat 4 hr
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
No data found No data found  
General human health issues
IARC Group 2B carcinogen
May be harmful by ingestion, inhalation and through skin contact
May cause dermatitis
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H350
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R43
EC Safety Classification
-
WHO Classification
U (Unlikely to present an acute hazard)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
anthraquinone
French
anthraquinone
German
Anthrachinon
Danish
anthraquinon
Italian
antrachinone
Spanish
antraquinona
Greek
-
Polish
antrachinon
Swedish
-
Hungarian
antrachinon
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 19/05/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242