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GET ADDITIONAL DATA HERE!

linuron (Ref: HOE 02810)
** DPX Z0326 ** AE F002810 ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for linuron

Description: A herbicide for the pre- and post-emergence control of annual grass and broad-leaved weeds

Example pests controlled: Chickweed; Prickly lettuce; Lambsquarter; Crabgrass; Goosegrass

Example applications: Wide variety of crops including asparagus, carrots, parsnips, beans, cereals; Cotton; Coffee; Tea; Rice; Ornamentals

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: circa 1965

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Italy/Germany
Date inclusion expires Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) -
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C9H10Cl2N2O2
Canonical SMILES CN(C(=O)NC1=CC(=C(C=C1)Cl)Cl)OC
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) XKJMBINCVNINCA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C9H10Cl2N2O2/c1-13(15-2)9(14)12-6-3-4-7(10)8(11)5-6/h3-5H,1-2H3,(H,12,14)
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

Click to access the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) website
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams:
Common Name Relationship Link
Linuron - Click here for the CCDC structure diagram

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Herbicide
Substance group Urea
Minimum active substance purity 950 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - TCB 1 mg/kg max; TCAB 1 mg/kg max; TCAOB 1 mg/kg max
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Selective, systemic with contact and residual action. Inhibits photosynthesis (photosystem II)
CAS RN 330-55-2
EC number 206-356-5
CIPAC number 76
US EPA chemical code 035506
PubChem CID 9502
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 249.09
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea
CAS name N'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methoxy-N-methylurea
Other status information OSPAR candidate; Potential groundwater contaminant; Marine Pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards UK statutory standard for the protection of aquatic life in inland, coastal and territorial waters: 2 ug/L
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) C2
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) 7
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White crystalline solid
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • AgriGuard
  • DAPT
  • Nufarm UK
  • Makhteshim-Agan
  • United Phosphorus
Example products using this active
  • Afalon 450 SC
  • Linuron 50SC
  • Blios
  • Uranus
  • Lorox
UK LERAP status Buffer probably required in UK - see product label
Formulation and application details Available in a variety of formulations including wettable powders, emulsifiable concentrates and suspension concentrates.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for linuron

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 63.8 A5 Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 395000 A5 - Acetone -
292000 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
170000 A5 - Methanol -
75000 A5 - Toluene -
Melting point (oC) 93 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 220 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.00 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P 3.0 A5 Moderate
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.49 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.051 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 2.00 X 10-04 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 2.21 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.05 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 211nm A3 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 70.2 A5 at 20 degC, 97.4% -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 57.6 A5 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 57.6 A5 Moderately persistent
DT50 (field) 48 A5 Moderately persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 210 A5 -
DT90 (field) 218 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU 2016 dossier lab studies DT50 (actual0 range 10.1-168.4 days, DT90 range 70.3-559 days; EU 2012 dossier Lab studies DT50 range 38-135 days, field studies DT50 range 13-82 days, DT90 range 70-365 days
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 1460 A5 Very persistent
Note Stable pH 5 to pH 9 at 22 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 24.1 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 13 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd 15.7 A5 Slightly mobile
Koc 842.8
Notes and range EU 2016 dossier: Kd range 11.48-21.89 mL/g, Koc range 547-1159 mL/g, Soils=4; Literature data: Kd range 0.50-41.2 mL/g, Koc range 92.0-2839 mL/g, soils=39, mostly irrigated soils (R4)
Freundlich Kf 10.43 A5 Slightly mobile
Kfoc 559
1/n 0.87
Notes and range EU 2016 dossier: Kf range 6.28-19.37 mL/g, Kfoc range 484-654 mL/g, 1/n range 0.80-0.91, Soils =4; EU 2002 dossier kf range 3-12 mL/g, Kfoc range 410-463 mL/g, Soils=3; Literature data: Kf range 0.01-51.3 mL/g, Kfoc range 2.0-2156 mL/g, 1/n range 0.70-3.03, soils=39, mostly irrigarted soils (R4)
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
3,4-dichloroaniline Soil   -   -

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
desmethoxy linuron - Soil (Aerobic); Water (Anaerobic) - -
demethoxymonolinuron - Water (Anaerobic) - -
3,4-dichlorobenzeneamine DCA - - -
N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N'-methylurea DCPMV Soil (Anaerobic) 0.55 -
desmethoxy monlinuron - Water (Anaerobic) - -
(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea DCPU - - -
desmethyl linuron - Soil (Photolysis) - -
norlinuron - Water (Anaerobic) - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for linuron

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 49 A5 Low potential
CT50 (days) 8 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 1146 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 2 B5 Rat High
(ppm diet) 25 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 314 A5 Colinus virginianus Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) 1250 mg kg feed-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 3.15 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.1 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.31 A4 Daphnia magna, 24 hour Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.18 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 2.9 F3 Americamysis bahia Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 10.0 F3 Chironomus riparius, 1 day Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.017 F3 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.016 A4 Raphidocelis subcapitata, 72 hour Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 0.01 Q2 Unknown species Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 120.9 F4 Apis mellifera Low
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 160 A5 Low
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 1000 A5 Low
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 70 Mortality
Dose: 2.43 kg ha-1
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi, adult
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 100 Mortality
Dose: 0.95 kg ha-1
A5 Typhlodromus pyri, adult
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effectt
A5
Dose: 1.9 kg ha-1, 100 days
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for linuron

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 1146 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 0.85 A5 Rat, 4 hr (nose only, aerosol) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.003 A5 Rat, SF=500 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.03 A5 Rabbit, SF=300 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.009 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 0.5-3.0 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public Minimal risk from dietary exposure
Risk assessment indicates ARfD would not normally be execeeded
Occupational Occupational exposure may occur through inhalation and dermal contact
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A3; B0; C0; D0; E3

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues May cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea if ingested
USEPA - possible human carcinogen
Endocrine issues - Competitive binding to androgen receptor, thyroid receptor agonist
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
Not explosive or oxidising
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302, H351, H360Df, H373
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Carcinogen category 3: R40
Reproduction risk category 2 and 3: R61, R62
Xn - Harmful: R22, R48/22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S45, S53, S60, S61
WHO Classification III - Slightly hazardous
UN Number Usually 3082
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for linuron

Language Name
English linuron
French linuron
German Linuron
Danish linuron
Italian linuron
Spanish linuron
Greek linuron
Slovenian linuron
Polish linuron
Swedish -
Hungarian linuron
Dutch linuron

Record last updated: Wednesday 31 October 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk