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Atrazine (Ref: G 30027)
Last updated: 18/06/2020
(Also known as: aneldazin)

SUMMARY
Atrazine is a herbicide that does not have EU approval for use. It has selective, systemic action with residual and foliar activity. It has a low aqueous solubility, it is volatile and, based on its physico-chemical properties there is some concern that it could leach to groundwater. It is generally not persistent in the field nor in aquatic systems. It is moderately toxic to mammals, is not expected to bioaccumulate and is a skin, eye and respiratory system irritant. Atrazine is moderately toxic to most aquatic life, earthworms and honeybees but presents less of a risk to birds.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A triazine herbicide used pre- and post-emergence with restricted permitted uses to control broad-leaved weeds and grasses
Example pests controlled
Morning glory; Barnyard grass; Cocklebur; Lambsquarters; Crabgrass; Pigweed; Buckwheat; Ragweed; Foxtail
Example applications
Corn; Sorghum; Sugarcane; Turf; Asparagus
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1957
UK regulatory status
UK approval status
Not approved
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 91/414 Status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
UK
Date inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) or known to be used (#) in the following EU-27 Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Australia, USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₈H₁₄ClN₅
Canonical SMILES
CCNC1=NC(=NC(=N1)Cl)NC(C)C
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
MXWJVTOOROXGIU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C8H14ClN5/c1-4-10-7-12-6(9)13-8(14-7)11-5(2)3/h5H,4H2,1-3H3,(H2,10,11,12,13,14)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
atrazine -
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide
Substance group
Triazine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Selective, systemic action with residual and foliar activity. Inhibits photosynthesis (photosystem II).
CAS RN
1912-24-9
EC number
217-617-8
CIPAC number
91
US EPA chemical code
080803
PubChem CID
2256
Molecular mass
215.68
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-(propan-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine
IUPAC name
6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine
CAS name
6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine
Other status information
OSPAR soc; WFD priority substance; Potential groundwater contaminant; Chemical subject to PIC regulations
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
EU Directive 2008/105/EC EQS surface waters: annual average 0.6 µg l⁻¹; max measured 2.0 µg l⁻¹
UK statutory standard for protection of aquatic life for inland, coastal and territory surface waters 2.0 µg l⁻¹
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
C1
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
5
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Many recorded cases, Alopecurus myosuroides, Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Conyza canadensis, Abutilon theophrasti
Physical state
White crystals
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Gesaprim
  • Fenamin
  • Atrazinax
  • Weedex
  • Primaze
  • Atratol
  • Radazine
Example products using this active
  • Syngenta
  • Bayer CropScience
  • Monsanto
  • Scotts
UK LERAP status
Buffer probably required in UK - see product label
Formulation and application details
Available in a variety of formulations including dry flowable, flowable liquid, liquid, water dispersible granules and wettable powders.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
35
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
24000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Ethyl acetate
-
28000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Dichloromethane
-
4000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Toluene
-
110
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
n-Hexane
-
Melting point (°C)
175.8
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
5.01 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.7
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderate
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.23
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
1.7
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Very weak base
Vapour pressure at 20 °C
0.039
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C
1.50 X 10-04
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index
2.57 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
1.52 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
75
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Laboratory
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
66
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
29
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Lab studies DT₅₀ range 28-150 days, field studies DT₅₀ range 6-108 days (USA); Other sources: DT₅₀ 6-10 weeks (R3), 146 days at 25 °C (R3)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
2.6
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately fast
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
86
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
Note
Rapidly hydrolysed in strong acids and alkalis and at elevated temperatures
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
80
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Moderately fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately mobile
Koc
100
Notes and range
Other sources: 89-513 mL g⁻¹ (R3), Log Koc 2.00 at 25 °C (R4)
Freundlich
Kf
3.2
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Moderately mobile
Kfoc
174
1/n
1.07
Notes and range
Literature data: Kf range 1.3-6.3 mL g⁻¹, kfoc range 70-429 mL g⁻¹, 1/n range 1.04=1.10, Soils = 13
pH sensitivity
-
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
6-deisopropyl atrazine (Ref: G-28279)
Soil 0.33 Major, Relevant
deethylatrazine (Ref: G-30033)
Soil 0.21 Major, Relevant
2-hydroxyatrazine (Ref: G-34048)
Soil - Non Relevant
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
deisopropyldeethylatrazine (Ref: G-28273) - Soil 0.08 -
deethylhydroxyatrazine (Ref: G-17794) - Soil 0.08 -
deisopropylhydroxyatrazine (Ref: G-17792) - Soil 0.08 -
deisopropyldeethylhydroxyatrazine (Ref: G-17791) - Soil 0.004 -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
4.3
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
(Other literature Log BCF range 0.98-2.5 (R3))
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1869
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
B3 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
(ppm diet)
200 -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
4237
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Coturnix japonica
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
4.5
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
2
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
85
B3 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.25
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna LOEC
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
1.0
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Americamysis bahia
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
1.0
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chironomus riparius 1 day
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
0.019
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lemna gibba
Moderate
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.059
B3 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Raphidocelis subcapitata
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.1
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Green algae
Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 100
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 100
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
79
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmless
AA2 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmless
AA2 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Chrysoperla carnea
-
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1869
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
3100
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
5.8
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.02
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
JMPR 2007
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.1
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
JMPR 2007
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.01
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
EU 1998
-
Dermal penetration studies (%)
10
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
EU 1998
-
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
May be absorbed from the lungs or through intact skin
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.002 mg l⁻¹
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
UK EA QS database 2018
-
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
IARC Group 3 carcinogen
May cause coma, circulatory collapse and gastric bleeding
May cause renal failure
May disturb testosterone metabolism
Endocrine issues - Androgen inhibition, weak estrogenic effect
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Avoid the formation of dust
Powders may become explosive under certain conditions
Store away from heat, flames and sparks
CLP classification 2013
Health: H317, H373
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R48/22, R43
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S36/37, S61, S60
WHO Classification
III (Slightly hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
atrazine
French
atrazine
German
Atrazin
Danish
atrazin
Italian
atrazina
Spanish
atrazina
Greek
atrazine
Polish
atrazyna
Swedish
-
Hungarian
atrazine
Dutch
atrazine

Record last updated: 18/06/2020
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242