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Monolinuron (Ref: HOE 002747)
Last updated: 03/03/2020
(Also known as: AE F002747)

SUMMARY
Monolinuron is a herbicide that is not widely approved for use in the developed world. It has a low to moderate mammalian oral toxicity. It is highly soluble in water and many organic solvents, and is volatile. Monolinuron has a high leaching potential and studies suggest that it is moderately persistent in soils. It is moderately toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic plants and earthworms. It is relatively less toxic to honeybees.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A pre- or post-emergence herbicide used to control broad-leaved weeds and some grasses in a wide range of food and non-food crops
Example pests controlled
Broad-leaved weeds; Annual grasses
Example applications
Vegetables including beans, onions; Potatoes; Fruit; Cereals; Ornamentals; Vines
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
circa 1965
UK regulatory status
UK approval status
Not approved
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 91/414 Status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
UK
Date inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) or known to be used (#) in the following EU-27 Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₉H₁₁ClN₂O₂
Canonical SMILES
CN(C(=O)NC1=CC=C(C=C1)Cl)OC
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
LKJPSUCKSLORMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C9H11ClN2O2/c1-12(14-2)9(13)11-8-5-3-7(10)4-6-8/h3-6H,1-2H3,(H,11,13)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
monolinuron -
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide
Substance group
Urea
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Selective, systemic absorbed by roots and leaves and translocated. Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II
CAS RN
1746-81-2
EC number
217-129-5
CIPAC number
169
US EPA chemical code
207500
PubChem CID
15629
Molecular mass
214.65
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea
CAS name
N'-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-methoxy-N-methylurea
Other status information
Chemical subject to PIC regulations
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
C2
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
7
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Colourless crystals
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Gramonol
  • Aresin
  • Monamex
Example products using this active
  • Bayer CropScience
  • Hoechst
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate or wettable powder.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
735
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
200000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Acetone
-
3900
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Hexane
-
200000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Methanol
-
200000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Toluene
-
Melting point (°C)
81.5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.58 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.2
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.5
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
Not applicable
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20 °C
0.0064
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C
3.80 X 10-04
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index
2.89 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
2.58 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
60
DW4 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
50
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
General literature DT₅₀ range 33-66 days (R3)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
C2 C = AGRITOX (click here )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Stable
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
22
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately mobile
Koc
200
Notes and range
Best available data
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
40
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Whole fish
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2100
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
5
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
High
(ppm diet)
50 -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1690
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Coturnix japonica
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
42
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
5
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
32.5
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.56
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
120
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chironomus riparius 1 day
Low
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
2.4
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lemna spp.
Moderate
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.001
B1 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
1 = Estimated data with little or no verification
Scenedemus subspicatus
High
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
296
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Moderately harmful
AA2 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Chrysoperla carnea
-
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2100
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
3.39
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.003
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Moderately toxic
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H373
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R22, R48/22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S22, S60, S61
WHO Classification
III (Slightly hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
monolinuron
French
monolinuron
German
Monolinuron
Danish
monolinuron
Italian
monolinuron
Spanish
monolinuron
Greek
monolinuron
Polish
monolinuron
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
monolinuron

Record last updated: 03/03/2020
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242