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penoxsulam (Ref: XDE 638)
** DE 638 ** DASH-001 ** DASH-1100 ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for penoxsulam

Description: A new post-emergence herbicide used on rice crops for the control of broad-leaved weeds, aquatic weeds and certain grasses

Example pests controlled: Sedges; Broad-leaved weeds including loosestrife, chickweed and clover; Aquatic weeds including water plaintain and water hyacinth; Certain grasses including barnyardgrass, young watergrass, annual blackgrass and buckwheat

Example applications: Lawns; Rice; Cereals; Orchards; Olives

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 2004, Turkey

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Italy/Poland
Date inclusion expires 31/07/2023
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C16H14F5N5O5S
Canonical SMILES COC1=CN=C(N2C1=NC(=N2)NS(=O)(=O)C3=C(C=CC=C3OCC(F)F)C(F)(F)F)OC
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) SYJGKVOENHZYMQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C16H14F5N5O5S/c1-29-10-6-22-15(30-2)26-13(10)23-14(24-26)25-32(27,28)12-8(16(19,20)21)4-3-5-9(12)31-7-11(17)18/h3-6,11H,7H2,1-2H3,(H,24,25)/f/h25H
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Herbicide
Substance group Triazopyrimidine
Minimum active substance purity 980 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - Bis-CHYMP, max content 0.5g/kg
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Broad spectrum, absorbed mainly by leaves and, to lesser extent, roots and translocated, exhibits knockdown and residual control. Inhibits plant amino acid synthesis - acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS.
CAS RN 219714-96-2
EC number -
CIPAC number 758
US EPA chemical code 119031
PubChem CID 11784975
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 483.37
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name 3-(2,2-difluoroethoxy)-N-(5,8-dimethoxy[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-2-yl)-α,α,α-trifluorotoluene-2-sulfonamide
CAS name 2-(2,2-difluoroethoxy)-N-(5,8-dimethoxy(1,2,4)triazolo(1,5-c)pyrimidin-2-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) B
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) 2
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance Echinochloa crus-galli
Physical state Off-white to pale pink solid
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Dow AgroSciences
Example products using this active
  • Penoxsulam DE638
  • Galleon
  • Granite
  • Grasp Xtra
  • Sapphire
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Used as a broadcast spray.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for penoxsulam

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 408 A5 Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 20300 A5 - Acetone -
1480 A5 - Methanol -
35 A5 - n-Octanol -
15300 A5 - Acetonitrile -
Melting point (oC) 212 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 214 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.50 X 10-01 Calculated -
Log P -0.602 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.61 E4 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 5.1 A5 -
Note: Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 2.49 X 10-11 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 2.94 X 10-14 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 3.05 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 2.88 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral solution: 284nm = 9530; [Acidic solution: 251nm = 7450, 284nm = 9520; [Basic solution: 228nm = 44300, 284nm = 9380 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 32 E4 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 32 A5 Moderately persistent
DT50 (field) 5.9 A5 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 107 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier lab studies DT50 range 22-58 days, DT90 range 74-192 day, Field studies DT50 range 5.6-6.1 days; Literature lab values DT50 range 4.8-10.6 days (anaerobic, global), 22-118 days (aerobic global), 6.6 days (anaerobic EU), 22-58 days (aerobic, EU)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 2.8 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 1.1-4.4 days, 2 field crops, various matrices, n=2
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 2 A5 Moderately fast
Note Main degradation route in water
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable under all normal environmental conditions
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd 1.4 A5 Mobile
Koc 73.2
Notes and range EU dossier Kd range 0.13-1.44 mL/g, Koc range 13-305 mL/g, Soils=17; Literature Koc 12-1141 mL/g (global), 12-305 mL/g (EU)
Freundlich Kf 1.27 A5 Moderately mobile
Kfoc 94
1/n 0.91
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 0.16-4.69, Kfoc range 10-382 mL/g, 1/n range 0.80-1.09, Soils=12
pH sensitivity Sorption increases with decreasing pH

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
2-(2,2-difluoroethoxy)-N-(5-hydroxy-8-methoxy(1,2,4)triazolo(1,5-c)pyrimidin-2-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.405   Major fraction, Relevant
3-(((2-(2,2-difluoroethoxy)-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)sulfonyl)amino)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylic acid This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.530   Major fraction, Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
(5,8-dimethoxy[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfamic acid TPSA Water (Photolysis) 0.560 -
5,8-dimethoxy[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-2-amine 2-amino-TP Water (Photolysis) 0.230 -
3-(2,2-difluoroethoxy)-2-[(5-hydroxy-8-methoxy[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfamoyl]benzoic acid PCA-5-OH Water/sediment - -
3-({[2-(2,2-difluoroethoxy)-?-hydroxy-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]sulfonyl}amino)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylic acid OH-BSTCA Water/sediment - -
2-hydroxyphenyl-penoxsulam: N-(5,8-dimethoxy[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-6-(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide 2-hydroxyphenyl-penoxsulam Unknown - -
2-(2,2-difluoroethoxy)-N-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide BST Soil; Plants - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for penoxsulam

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 100 Q2 Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2025 A5 Colinus virginianus Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 804 mg kg bw-1 day-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 100 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 10.2 E4 Pimephales promelas Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 98.3 F4 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 2.95 E4 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 114 E4 Americamysis bahia Low
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 61.0 E4 Chironomus riparius Low
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) 810 E4 Chironomus riparius Low
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.003 E4 Lemna gibba High
Non-target plants 6.2 A5 Sugarbeet
Seedling emergence, EC50, shoot weight
as g/ha
-
6.2 A5 Soybean
Vegetative vigour, shoot weight, EC50
as g/ha
-
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.49 E4 Anabaena flos-aquae Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Low
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Low
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 1000 F4 Eisenia foetida Low
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) > 1000 A5 Eisenia foetida Low
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 40 >, 48 hour
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect 0
26
Mortality
Fecundity
Dose: 40 g ha-1
L3 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 7.46 Fecundity
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect 0
8.2
Mortality
Fecundity
Dose: 40 g ha-1
L3 Typhlodromus pyri
-
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for penoxsulam

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 5000 E4 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 3.5 E4 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.05 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) Not allocated A5 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.18 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 10 A5 -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 List II - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Acceptable for proposed uses
Occupational Acceptable for proposed uses
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Possible blood, liver and kidney toxicant
USEPA - some evidence to suggest possible human carcinogen

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
CLP classification 2013 None allocated at this time
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases N - Dangerous for the environment: R50/53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S57
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
US EPA Classification (formulation) No consensus across products or no products available - -
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for penoxsulam

Language Name
English penoxsulam
French penoxsulame
German Penoxsulam
Danish penoxsulam
Italian penoxsulam
Spanish penoxsulam
Greek -
Slovenian penoksulam
Polish penoksulam
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch -

Record last updated: Thursday 23 August 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk