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Pentachlorophenol
Last updated: 15/09/2021
(Also known as: PCP; penchlorol; chlorophen)

SUMMARY
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
GUS: High leachability; Drainflow: Mobile
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Fish chronic ecotoxicity: High
Human health
High alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: High; Carcinogen; Endocrine distrupter; Reproduction/development effects; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A multi-action pesticide used to control wood boring insects, wood fungal rots and as a general herbicide
Example pests controlled
Defoliant; Wood-damaging insects including termites; Timber rot
Example applications
Cotton; Utility wood structures such as railway sleepers, utility poles, fencing
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Unknown
Introduction & key dates
circa 1936
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₆HCl₅O
Canonical SMILES
C1(=C(C(=C(C(=C1Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)O
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
IZUPBVBPLAPZRR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C6HCl5O/c7-1-2(8)4(10)6(12)5(11)3(1)9/h12H
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
pentachlorophenol -
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Herbicide, Fungicide, Molluscicide, Plant growth regulator, Wood preservative
Substance group
Organochlorine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Accelerates aerobic metabolism and increases heat production
CAS RN
87-86-5
EC number
201-778-6
CIPAC number
106
US EPA chemical code
063001
PubChem CID
992
Molecular mass
266.34
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
pentachlorophenol
CAS name
pentachlorophenol
Other status information
WFD priority substance; Subject to PIC regulations; Regulated POP; Severe Marine Pollutant; Rotterdam Convention (Class Ib); UK non-statutory standard for dry soil: <0.06 mg/Kg
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
EU Directive 2008/105/EC EQS surface waters: annual average 0.4 µg l⁻¹; max measured 1.0 µg l⁻¹
UK statutory standard for the protection of aquatic life: annual average for inland, coastal and territorial waters: 2 µg l⁻¹
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not known
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not known
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
2A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not known
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Colourless crystals
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
-
Example products using this active
-
Formulation and application details
-
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
1000
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
500000
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
Acetone
-
150000
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
Benzene
-
1800000
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
Methanol
-
12000000
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
Ethanol
-
Melting point (°C)
191
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
309
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.09 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.32
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.99
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
4.73
DW4 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
4 = Verified data
-
Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
16000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
4.30 X 10-01
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
63
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
48
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Data DT₅₀ range 46-63 days
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
0.03
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Fast
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Stable
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mobile
Koc
30
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
4.24 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
1.43 X 1000 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
216
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
(Whole body Other literature values Log BCF range 1.2-3.2 (R3))
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
80
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
3.9
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 380
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Anas platyrhynchos
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.17
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.05
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
Carassius auratus
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.45
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.18
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.11
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chironomus riparius 2 day
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
0.12
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lemna gibba
Moderate
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.08
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Scenedesmus quadricauda
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.4
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chlorella pyrenoidosa
Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
48
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
48
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
10
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
64.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Folsomia candida 33d
-
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
80
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
105
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.355
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I; List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
Readily absorbed through the skin
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.009 mg l⁻¹
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
UK EA QS database 2018
-
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
Yes, known to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Liver and thyroid toxicant
Heart failure may occur following acute inhalation
Bioaccumulates
IARC group 2B carcinogen; USEPA - probable human carcinogen
Endocrine issues - Weak estrogenic and anti-androgenic affect
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Prevent generation of dust
Not expected to autoignite; Not highly flammable
CLP classification 2013
Health: H301, H311, H315, H319, H330, H335, H351
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 3: R40
T+ - Very toxic: R26
T - Toxic: R24/25
Xi - Irritant: R36/37/38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S1/2, S22, S36/37, S45, S52, S60, S61
WHO Classification
Ib (Highly hazardous / Highly hazardous)
UN Number
3155
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
pentachlorophenol
French
pentachlorophénol
German
Pentachlorphenol
Danish
pentachlorphenol
Italian
pentaclorofenolo
Spanish
pentaclorofenato
Greek
-
Polish
pentachlorofenol
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
pentachloorfenol

Record last updated: 15/09/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242