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Phoxim (Ref: OMS 1170)
Last updated: 26/02/2021
(Also known as: phoxime; BAY 5621)

SUMMARY
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Drainflow: Slightly mobile; Potential for particle bound transport: Medium
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: High
Human health
High alert:
Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An insecticide and acaricide used to control stored-product pests such as ants and some soil insects. Also used as a disinfectant.
Example pests controlled
Locusts; lepidopterous larvae; Caterpillars
Example applications
Potatoes; Cotton; Maize; Sugarbeet
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Unknown
Introduction & key dates
1970
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Finland
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Isomeric
Chemical formula
C₁₂H₁₅N₂O₃PS
Canonical SMILES
CCOP(=S)(OCC)ON=C(C#N)C1=CC=CC=C1
Isomeric SMILES
CCOP(=S)(OCC)O/N=C(\C#N)/C1=CC=CC=C1
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
ATROHALUCMTWTB-WYMLVPIESA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C12H15N2O3PS/c1-3-15-18(19,16-4-2)17-14-12(10-13)11-8-6-5-7-9-11/h5-9H,3-4H2,1-2H3/b14-12+
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Other substance , Veterinary substance
Other constituent type
Disinfectant
Substance group
Organophosphate
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Non-systemic with contact and stomach action. Short activity period. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor.
CAS RN
14816-18-3
EC number
238-887-3
CIPAC number
364
US EPA chemical code
598800
PubChem CID
9570290
Molecular mass
298.3
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
O,O-diethyl α-cyanobenzylideneaminooxyphosphonothioate
CAS name
4-ethoxy-7-phenyl-3,5-dioxa-6-aza-4-phosphaoct-6-ene-8-nitrile 4-sulphide
Other status information
OSPAR soc
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
1B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Amblyseius nicholsii, Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles sacharovi, Culex quinquefasciatus, Heliothis assulta, many others
Physical state
Yellow liquid
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Superxim
  • Phoxim 50
  • Liben
  • Volaton
Example products using this active
  • FCC Ltd
  • Bayer CropScience
  • King Tech
Formulation and application details
Available in a variety of formulations including aerosols, baits, dustable powders, emulsifiable concentrates, seed dressings, granules and ULV liquid.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
1.5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
250000
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Xylene
-
250000
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Dichloromethane
-
250000
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Acetone
-
136000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
n-Heptane
-
Melting point (°C)
5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes on distillation
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.40 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.38
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.18
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
2.1
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
4.18 X 10-01
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
6
W4 W = French database provided by ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
0.24
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Tea, green leaves, n=1
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
1.7
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 1.5-2.1 days, 3 field crops, various matrices, n=3
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
7.2
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
Note
pH sensitive: DT₅₀ 26.7 days at pH 4, 3.1 days at pH 9, all at 22 °C
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
33.33
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Slightly mobile
Kfoc
1148
1/n
1.03
Notes and range
Kf range 27.0-44.0 (802 for peat) mL g⁻¹, Kfoc range 997-1243 (1333 for peat) mL g⁻¹, 1/n - no data, Soils=4
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
0.73 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.12 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Slightly mobile Calculated -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
chlorphoxim (Ref: OMS 1197)
Soil - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
1610
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
(whole body)
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 year
-
(ppm diet)
> 15 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.22
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lepomis macrochirus
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.00081
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
< 0.1
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anabaena variabilis 5 day
Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 40.4
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
5000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
4.0
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.004
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
JMPR 1999
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I; List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
No data found
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Harmful if swallowed
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Flammable
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H317, H361f
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S36, S60, S61
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
phoxim
French
phoxime
German
Phoxim
Danish
phoxim
Italian
foxim
Spanish
foxim
Greek
phoxim
Polish
foksim
Swedish
foxim
Hungarian
-
Dutch
foxim

Record last updated: 26/02/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242