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Piperonyl butoxide (Ref: ENT 14250)
Last updated: 10/08/2021
(Also known as: PBO; butacide; butoxide)

SUMMARY
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Potential for particle bound transport: Medium
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate
Human health
High alert:
Endocrine distrupter; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An unclassified synergist used in a wide variety of insecticides to provide enhanced performance of the active ingredient
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
circa 1950
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Not applicable
UK LERAP status
Not applicable
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not applicable - not a ppp. May be authorised at national level under different legislation
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Also used in
Australia
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₉H₃₀O₅
Canonical SMILES
CCCCOCCOCCOCC1=CC2=C(C=C1CCC)OCO2
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
FIPWRIJSWJWJAI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C19H30O5/c1-3-5-7-20-8-9-21-10-11-22-14-17-13-19-18(23-15-24-19)12-16(17)6-4-2/h12-13H,3-11,14-15H2,1-2H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Other substance, Veterinary substance
Other constituent type
Performance enhancer, Synergist
Substance group
Cyclic aromatic
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Blocks pests natural detoxification system. Synergist. P450-dependent monooxygenase inhibitor.
CAS RN
51-03-6
EC number
200-076-7
CIPAC number
33
US EPA chemical code
067501
PubChem CID
-
Molecular mass
338.44
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
5-[2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxymethyl]-6-propyl-1,3-benzodioxole
CAS name
5-((2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxy)methyl)-6-propyl-1,3-benzodioxole
Other status information
Listed on USA Toxic Release Inventory
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
27A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens, Musca domestica, Pectinophora gossypiella, Rhizopertha dominica, many others
Physical state
Colourless to yellow oily liquid
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • AgroCare
  • Agropharm
  • Bayer
  • Cooper
Example products using this active
  • Pyrocide
  • Rotacide
  • Meteor-Plus
Formulation and application details
Available in a range of formulations including dusts, emulsifiable concentrates, foggers, paper coatings, pressurized sprays, wettable powders, shampoos and as impregnated collars
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
14.3
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
Not applicable
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
164
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
179
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
5.62 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.75
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.06
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
2.00 X 10-02
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
2.30 X 10-06
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
50.39
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
13
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
14.3
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 3.3-25.3 days, 2 field crops, various matrices, n=2
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
250
H3 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Persistent
Note
Stable pH 5 to pH 9 at 25 °C
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
W3 W = French database provided by ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
89125
Notes and range
Other data: Koc range 399-830 mL g⁻¹ (L3)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-1.06 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g⁻¹ are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Non-mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
260
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lepomis macrochinis
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 7220
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
30
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 year
High
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2250
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
5.3
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Cyprinidae
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.51
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.12
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna LOEC
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.24
K3 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
294
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 7220
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
1880
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 5.9
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LDLo = 1000 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.2
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
JMPR 1995
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
None allocated
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
JMPR 2002
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
Yes, known to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
Possible liver toxicant
NB: Some sources dispute carcinogenicity
IARC Group 3 carcinogen; USEPA - possible human carcinogen
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Not explosive
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013
Health: H330, H361
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 3: R40
T - Toxic: R23, R24, R25
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50/53
EC Safety Classification
S23, S26, S36, S37, S39, S45
WHO Classification
U (Unlikely to present an acute hazard)
UN Number
3082
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group III (minor danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
piperonyl butoxide
French
pipéronyl butoxyde
German
Piperonylbutoxid
Danish
piperonylbutoxyd
Italian
piperonil butossido
Spanish
butoxido de piperonilo
Greek
-
Polish
piperonyl butoksydu
Swedish
piperonylbutoxid
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 10/08/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242