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Piperonyl butoxide (Ref: ENT 14250)
Last updated: 07/03/2024
(Also known as: PBO; butacide; butoxide)

SUMMARY
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Potential for particle bound transport: Medium
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate
Human health
High alert:
Endocrine disrupter; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An unclassified synergist used mainly with pyrethroid insecticides to provide enhanced performance of the active ingredient
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
circa 1950, introduced
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
31/12/2030
UK LERAP status
Not applicable
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not applicable - not a ppp. May be authorised at national level under different legislation
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 by Mutual Recognition of Authorisation and/or national regulations in the following EEA countries
ISIceland
NONorway
                 
Additional information
Also used in
Australia
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₉H₃₀O₅
Canonical SMILES
CCCCOCCOCCOCC1=CC2=C(C=C1CCC)OCO2
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
FIPWRIJSWJWJAI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C19H30O5/c1-3-5-7-20-8-9-21-10-11-22-14-17-13-19-18(23-15-24-19)12-16(17)6-4-2/h12-13H,3-11,14-15H2,1-2H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Other substance, Veterinary substance
Other constituent type
Synergist
Substance groups
Cyclic aromatic substance; Synergist
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Blocks pests natural detoxification system. Synergist. P450-dependent monooxygenase inhibitor.
CAS RN
51-03-6
EC number
200-076-7
CIPAC number
33
US EPA chemical code
067501
PubChem CID
-
Molecular mass
338.44
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
5-[2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxymethyl]-6-propyl-1,3-benzodioxole
CAS name
5-((2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxy)methyl)-6-propyl-1,3-benzodioxole
Other status information
Listed on USA Toxic Release Inventory
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Class (HRAC MoA class)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Class (WSSA MoA class)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Class (IRAC MoA class)
27A
Fungicide Resistance Class (FRAC MOA class)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens, Musca domestica, Pectinophora gossypiella, Rhizopertha dominica, many others
Physical state
Colourless to yellow oily liquid
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • AgroCare
  • Agropharm
  • Bayer
  • Cooper
  • Imtrade Australia Pty Ltd
Example products using this active
  • Pyrocide
  • Rotacide
  • Meteor-Plus
  • Imtrade Media RMR Miticide
Formulation and application details
Available in a range of formulations including dusts, emulsifiable concentrates, foggers, paper coatings, pressurized sprays, wettable powders, shampoos and as impregnated collars
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
14.3
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
Not applicable
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
164
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
179
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
5.62 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.75
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.06
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
2.00 X 10-02
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
2.30 X 10-06
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
Volatilisation as max % of applied dose lost
From plant surface
- - -
From soil surface
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
50.39
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
13
K4 K = Research datasets (e.g. Pandora, Demetra; these datasets no longer available). Norman Ecotoxicology database. (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ (days) on plant matrix
Value
14.3
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 3.3-25.3 days, 2 field crops, various matrices, n=2
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ (days) on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
250
H3 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database. Dataset is no longer available.
3 = Unverified data of known source
Persistent
Note
Stable pH 5 to pH 9 at 25 °C
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Air degradation
As this parameter is not normally measured directly, a surrogate measure is used: ‘Photochemical oxidative DT₅₀’. Where data is available, this can be found in the Fate Indices section below.
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
W3 W = French database provided by ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal. Dataset no longer available.
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
89125
Notes and range
Other data: Koc range 399-830 mL g⁻¹ (L3)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-1.06 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g⁻¹ are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Non-mobile Calculated -
Photochemical oxidative DT₅₀ (hrs) as indicator of long-range air transport risk
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
260
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lepomis macrochinis
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 7220
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
30
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 yr
High
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2250
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
294
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Apis mellifera
Low
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other bee species (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other bee species (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds) as Mortality LC₅₀ mg l⁻¹
> 1644
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Coccinella septempunctata Adult
-
Beneficial insects (Lacewings) as Mortality, Contact LD₅₀ g l⁻¹
> 1.71
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Chrysoperla carnea Larva
-
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Temperate Freshwater Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
5.3
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Cyprinidae spp.
Moderate
Temperate Freshwater Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Tropical Freshwater Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
3.84
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Danio rerio Embryo
Moderate
Temperate Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.51
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Temperate Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.12
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna LOEC
Moderate
Tropical Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.24
K3 K = Research datasets (e.g. Pandora, Demetra; these datasets no longer available). Norman Ecotoxicology database. (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 7220
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
1880
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 5.9
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LDLo = 1000 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID Online Databases; Chemspider; PubChem. (ChemID )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.2
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
JMPR 1995
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
None allocated
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
JMPR 2002
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Majority of dose eliminated in faeces
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
Yes, known to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
Possible liver toxicant
IARC Group 3 carcinogen - not classifiable; US EPA - possible human carcinogen; Some sources dispute carcinogenicity
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Not explosive
IMDG Transport Hazard Class 9
CLP classification 2013
Health: H330, H361
Environment: H400, H410
WHO Classification
U (Unlikely to present an acute hazard)
UN Number
UN3082
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group III (minor danger)
Shelf-life, storage, stability and reactivity
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
piperonyl butoxide
French
pipéronyl butoxyde
German
Piperonylbutoxid
Danish
piperonylbutoxyd
Italian
piperonil butossido
Spanish
butoxido de piperonilo
Greek
-
Polish
piperonyl butoksydu
Swedish
piperonylbutoxid
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-
Norwegian
-

Record last updated: 07/03/2024
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242