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Propham
Last updated: 03/03/2021
(Also known as: IPC; IFK)

SUMMARY
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
GUS: Transition state; Drainflow: Moderately mobile
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Bees acute contact ecotoxicity: Moderate
Human health
Moderate alert:
Possible Carcinogen; Possible Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A selective herbicide used to control annual weeds including volunteer cereals and grasses
Example pests controlled
Volunteer grains; Annual ryegrass; Dowy brome; Annual bluegrass; Canarygrass; Rabbitsfoot grass; Foxtail; Wild oats
Example applications
Alfalfa; Clover; Flax; Lettuce; Spinach; Lentils; Peas; Fallow land
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Unknown
Introduction & key dates
circa 1950
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Netherlands
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₀H₁₃NO₂
Canonical SMILES
CC(C)OC(=O)NC1=CC=CC=C1
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
VXPLXMJHHKHSOA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10H13NO2/c1-8(2)13-10(12)11-9-6-4-3-5-7-9/h3-8H,1-2H3,(H,11,12)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
propham -
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide, Plant growth regulator
Substance group
Carbamate
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Selective, systemic, mitosis inhibitor
CAS RN
122-42-9
EC number
204-542-0
CIPAC number
63
US EPA chemical code
047601
PubChem CID
24685
Molecular mass
179.22
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
isopropyl carbanilate
CAS name
1-methylethyl phenylcarbamate
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
K2
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
23
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Colourless crystals
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Dow
  • ICI Plant Protection
Example products using this active
  • Tuberite
  • Chem-Hoe
  • Premalox
Formulation and application details
Often supplied as emulsifiable concentrates, granules or wettable powder
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
250
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
87.3
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Sublimes on heating
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
100
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
3.98 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.6
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.09
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1999.5
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
at 25 °C
Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
3.90 X 10-03
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
at 25 °C
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
11
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
11
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Other sources: DT₅₀ 10 days (DW4)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
32
K3 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
10000
K3 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
3 = Unverified data of known source
Very persistent
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
42
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Moderately fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
H3 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately mobile
Koc
98
Notes and range
Other sources: Koc 200 mL g⁻¹ (US3, DW3)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
2.09 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
4.49 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Low Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Moderately mobile Calculated -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
N-phenylcarbamic acid
Soil - -
aniline
Soil - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
Low risk
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Based on LogP < 3
Low risk
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 30 day
-
(ppm diet)
10000 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anas platyrhynchos
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 32
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lepomis macrochirus
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 23
K3 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
26
K3 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.32
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Unknown species
Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 16
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
3000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
?Possibly, status not identified
?Possibly, status not identified
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found No data found No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
No data found No data found  
General human health issues
Harmful if swallowed
IARC group 3 carcinogen
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R22
EC Safety Classification
None allocated at this time
WHO Classification
U (Unlikely to present an acute hazard)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
propham
French
prophame
German
Propham
Danish
propham
Italian
profam
Spanish
profam
Greek
-
Polish
profam
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 03/03/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242