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Propoxur (Ref: OMS 33)
Last updated: 03/03/2020
(Also known as: arprocarb; PHC; propotox; ENT 25671)

SUMMARY
Propoxur is a carbamate pesticide not approved for use in the EU. With a high aqueous solubilty, it has potential for being mobile in groundwaters although it is rarely reported. It is not highly volatile. In some instances it may persist in soil systems. It is highly toxic to humans if it is ingested but not other serious health issues have been identified. There are gaps in information relating to the toxicity of propoxur to biodiversity but based on information that is available it likely to be moderately to highly toxic. .
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A insecticide and acaricide active against a wide range of pests especially those that cause damage via sucking and chewing. Also used for flea control on domestic pets.
Example pests controlled
Cockroaches; Flies; Mosquitoes; Fleas; Ticks; Aphids; Leaf hoppers
Example applications
Ornamentals; Lawns & turf; Glasshouse crops including tomatoes & cucumbers
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1959; first registered in the US in 1963.
UK regulatory status
UK approval status
Not approved
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 91/414 Status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) or known to be used (#) in the following EU-27 Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Australia, USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₁H₁₅NO₃
Canonical SMILES
CC(C)OC1=CC=CC=C1OC(=O)NC
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
ISRUGXGCCGIOQO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C11H15NO3/c1-8(2)14-9-6-4-5-7-10(9)15-11(13)12-3/h4-8H,1-3H3,(H,12,13)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
propoxur -
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Acaricide, Veterinary substance
Substance group
Carbamate
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Non-systemic with contact and stomach action. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor.
CAS RN
114-26-1
EC number
204-043-8
CIPAC number
80
US EPA chemical code
047802
PubChem CID
4944
Molecular mass
209.24
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
2-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate
CAS name
2-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl methylcarbamate
Other status information
Marine Pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
1A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Aedes aegypti, Amblyseius potentillae, Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles atroparvus, Anopheles funestus, many others
Physical state
White crystalline solid
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Unden
  • Rhoden
  • Baygon
  • Sendran
Example products using this active
  • Bayer
  • Makhteshim-Agan
  • Mobay
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details
Often supplied as emulsifiable concentrates, granules, dusts or wettable powders
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
1800
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
200000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Isopropanol
-
94000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Toluene
-
1300
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Hexane
-
Melting point (°C)
90
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes on distillation
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.38 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P
0.14
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.18
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.3
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.50 X 10-04
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index
3.65 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.62 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
79
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
30
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
28
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
0.65
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Leaves of ornamentals grown undercover, n=1
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
0.4
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Beans, leaves, n=1
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
0.01
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Fast
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
180
K3 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
3 = Unverified data of known source
Persistent
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
2
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mobile
Koc
30
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
2-(1-methylethoxy)phenol - Soil (Photolysis) - -
dimethyl propoxus - Plant 0.27-0.36 -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
Low risk
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rapid aquatic degradation
Low risk
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
~ 50
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 year
-
(ppm diet)
200 -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 25.9
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Colinus virginianus
High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
6.2
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lepomis macrochirus
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.15
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.016
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna survival 42 day
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
38.1
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chironomus riparius 1 day
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
< 0.112
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Apis mellifera 24hr
High
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 1.35
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Moderate
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 1.6
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Bombus terrestris
Moderate
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmful
AA2 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Chrysoperla carnea
-
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
~ 50
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
5000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.50
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ = 30 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Intramuscular LD₅₀ = 53 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.02
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
JMPR 1989
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
?Possibly, status not identified
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
Toxic
USEPA - probable human carcinogen
Endocrine issues - Weak estrogenic effect
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H301
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
T - Toxic: R25
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S37, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
2757
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
propoxur
French
propoxur
German
Propoxur
Danish
propoxur
Italian
propoxur
Spanish
propoxur
Greek
propoxur
Polish
propoksur
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
propoxur

Record last updated: 03/03/2020
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242