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benalaxyl (Ref: M 9834)
** benalaxil ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Benalaxyl is a fungicide that has EU approval for use and is widely used. It has a low aqueous solubility, is quite volatile and a low potential for bioaccumulation. It is non-mobile, moderately persistent in soil systems but may be persistent in water systems. It is moderately toxic to mammals but would not be expected to bioaccumulate. It is moderately toxic to most aquatic organisms, honey bees and earthworms but less so to birds.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for benalaxyl

Description: A phenylamide (acylalanine) fungicide used to control Oomycetes

Example pests controlled: Blue mould; Late blight; Downey mildew

Example applications: Tomatoes; Hops; Grapes; Lettuce; Peppers; Potatoes; Tobacco; Onions; Strawberries; Sunflowers; Soybeans; Turf; Ornamentals and flowers;

Efficacy & activity: Data supports good efficiacy. No adverse effects noted on treated crops.

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1981

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Romania/Portugal
Date inclusion expires 31/07/2019
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism A chiral molecule existing in both the R- and S-forms
Chemical formula C20H23NO3
Canonical SMILES CC1=C(C(=CC=C1)C)N(C(C)C(=O)OC)C(=O)CC2=CC=CC=C2
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) CJPQIRJHIZUAQP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C9H6ClNO3S/c10-5-2-1-3-6-8(5)11(4-7(12)13)9(14)15-6/h1-3H,4H2,(H,12,13)
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

Click to access the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) website
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams:
Common Name Relationship Link
Benalaxyl Unstated isomer Click here for the CCDC structure diagram

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Fungicide
Substance group Acylamino acid
Minimum active substance purity 960 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Systemic with protective, curative and eradicant action. Disrupts fungal nucleic acid synthesis - RNA ploymerase 1
CAS RN 71626-11-4
EC number 275-728-7
CIPAC number 416
US EPA chemical code 127001
PubChem CID 51369
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 325.40
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) methyl N-(phenylacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate
IUPAC name methyl N-(phenylacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate
CAS name methyl N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(phenylacetyl)-DL-alaninate
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) 4
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Colourless solid
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Interfarm
  • Sipcam
  • FCC Ltd
  • King Tech
  • ISAGRO S.p.A.
  • Farmoplant
Example products using this active
  • Galben M
  • Tairel
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Available in a variety of formulations including suspension concentrates, granules, wettable powders and as a slurry for seed treatment.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for benalaxyl

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 28.6 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 19400 A5 - n-Heptane -
250000 A5 - Methanol -
250000 A5 - Acetone -
250000 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
Melting point (oC) 76.8 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 250 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 3.47 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P 3.54 A5 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.18 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.572 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 6.50 X 10-03 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 1.91 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 6.56 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 203nm, No absorption at 290nm A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 47.0 A5 -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 33.2 A5 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 33.2 A5 Moderately persistent
DT50 (field) 66.8 A5 Moderately persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) 222 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU RAR 2017: Lab studies DT50 range 18.9-114 days, DT90 range 60.2 days - >1 year, Soils=14; Field studies DT50 range 26.6-127.6 days, DT90 range 88.2-424 days, Soils=5
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 3.2 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 0.5-8.3 days, 5 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=6
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 365 A5 Very persistent
Note Stable at pH 4 to pH 7, at pH 9 DT50 = 157 days at 20 degC, 86 days at 25 degC, 55 days at 50 degC and < 1 day at 70 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 168.2 A5 Slow
Water phase only DT50 (days) 38 A5 Stable

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd 71.0 A5 Non-mobile
Koc 4998
Notes and range EU dossier Kd range 49.1-108 mL/g, Koc range 2728-7173 mL/g, Soils=3
Freundlich Kf 8.05 A5 Slightly mobile
Kfoc 555
1/n 0.630
Notes and range EU RAR 2016: Kf range 7.77-8.33 mL/g, Kfoc range 555-707 mL/g, 1/n range 0.630-0.714, Soils=2
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
methyl-N-malonyl-N-2,6-xylyl-DL-alaninate This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.234   Major fraction, Relevant
N-malonyl-N-2,6-xylyl-DL-alanine Soil   0.034   Minor fraction, Relevant
benalaxyl acid This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.101   Major fraction; Relevant


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for benalaxyl

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 57 A5 Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 680 A5 Mouse Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - A5 Rat -
(ppm diet) 100 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 3700 A5 Coturnix coturnix Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 5000 ppm A4 Unknown species -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 3.75 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.49 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.59 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.03 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 3.13 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 2.4 A5 Selenastrum capricornutum Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Apis mellifera Low
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 22.6 A5 Apis mellifera Moderate
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Bombus terrestris, 48 hr Low
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 35.46 A5 Bombus terrestris, 48 hr Moderate
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 180 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 36.4 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 3.0 Mortality
Dose: 0.48 kg ha-1
A5 Phytoseiulus persimilis
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 75.3 Mortality at 1DA4T
A5 Typhlodromus pyri, adult
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 1.65 mg kg-1 soil
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for benalaxyl

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 680 A5 Mouse Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 4.2 A4 Rat (nose only) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.04 A5 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.5 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.06 A5 Rat, 90 day, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 0.7-18 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public Minimal risk of dietary exposure
Occupational Risk of exposure acceptable under label recommendations for use for personal protection clothing and equipment
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A3; B3; C3; D0; E3

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues Possible liver toxicant
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive
A weak oxidising agent
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302, H371
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S61, S60
WHO Classification III - Slightly hazardous
UN Number Usually 3077
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for benalaxyl

Language Name
English benalaxyl
French benalaxil
German Benalaxyl
Danish benalaxyl
Italian benalaxil
Spanish benalaxil
Greek benalaxyl
Slovenian benalaksil
Polish benalaksyl
Swedish -
Hungarian benalaxyl
Dutch benalaxyl

Record last updated: Friday 28 June 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk