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Simazine (Ref: G 27692)
Last updated: 11/03/2021
(Also known as: permazine ; symazine; taphazine)

SUMMARY
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Moderately persistent; GUS: Transition state; Drainflow: Moderately mobile; Potential for particle bound transport: Medium
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Fish chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate; Bees acute contact ecotoxicity: Moderate; Earthworms acute ecotoxicity: Moderate
Human health
Moderate alert:
Possible Carcinogen; Possible Endocrine distrupter; Possible Reproduction/development effects
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A soil-acting herbicide with used to control most germinating annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds. Has also been used to control algae in ponds and fish hatcheries.
Example pests controlled
Ivyleaved speedwell; Rocket; Shepherd's purse; Dead nettles; Goosefoot; Bindweed; Suppresses volunteer cereals
Example applications
Fruit including berries, currants, apples, pears; Hops; Almonds; Vines; Canola; Chickpeas; Beans; Lupins
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
circa 1960
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Not applicable
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
UK
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Australia, USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₇H₁₂ClN₅
Canonical SMILES
CCNC1=NC(=NC(=N1)Cl)NCC
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
ODCWYMIRDDJXKW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C7H12ClN5/c1-3-9-6-11-5(8)12-7(13-6)10-4-2/h3-4H2,1-2H3,(H2,9,10,11,12,13)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
simazine -
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide
Substance group
Triazine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Selective, systemic, absorbed through roots and foliage and translocated. Inhibits photosynthesis (photosystem II).
CAS RN
122-34-9
EC number
204-535-2
CIPAC number
22
US EPA chemical code
080807
PubChem CID
5216
Molecular mass
201.66
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
6-chloro-N2,N4-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine
IUPAC name
6-chloro-N2,N4-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine
CAS name
6-chloro-N,N'-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine
Other status information
WFD priority substance; Potential groundwater and surface water contaminant; Chemical subject to PIC regulations
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
EU Directive 2008/105/EC EQS surface waters: annual average 1.0 µg l⁻¹; max measured 4.0 µg l⁻¹
UK stutory standard for the protection of aquatic life: freshwater and salt water annual average 2 µg l⁻¹
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
C1
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
5
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Amaranthus albus, Amaranthus blitoides
Physical state
Colourless to white solid
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Loveland Chemicals
  • Makhteshim Agan
  • Syngenta
Example products using this active
  • Sanazine
  • Simanex
  • Amizina
  • Eagrow
  • Derby
Formulation and application details
Available in a range of formulations including wettable powders, water dispersible granules, liquids and granules.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
5
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
570
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
1500
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
130
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Toluene
-
3.1
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
n-Hexane
-
Melting point (°C)
Decomposes before melting
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
226
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.00 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.3
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.3
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
1.62
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Very weak base
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.00081
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
5.60 X 10-05
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
60
DW4 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
90
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Other sources: DT₅₀ 27-102 days (R3), 91 days at 25 °C (R4)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
1.9
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Moderately fast
Note
Unstable in UV light
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
96
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
Note
Stable under normal environmental conditions, hydrolysis does occur in strong acid and alkai solutions
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
33
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Moderately fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
46
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Stable
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately mobile
Koc
130
Notes and range
Other sources: Log Koc 2.14 at 25 °C (R3), 2.11 (R3)
Freundlich
Kf
15.88
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Slightly mobile
Kfoc
750
1/n
0.76
Notes and range
Kf range 4.59-20.6 mL g⁻¹, Kfoc range 124-1585 mL g⁻¹, 1/n range 0.33-0.89, Soils=3
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
2.20 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
1.07 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Moderately mobile Calculated -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
6-deisopropyl atrazine (Ref: G-28279)
Soil - -
2-hydroxy-4,6-bis(ethlyamino)-S-triazine
Soil - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
221
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
6.9
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
High
(ppm diet)
200 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
4640
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Anas platyrhynchos
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
90
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Lepomis macrochirus
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.7
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
1.1
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
2.5
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna LOEC
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
0.3
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lemna gibba
Moderate
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.04
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Scenedemus subspicatus
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.6
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Unknown species
Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
97
B3 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1000
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmless [Dose: 1125 g ha⁻¹]
AA3 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
3 = Unverified data of known source
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmless [Dose: 1125 g ha⁻¹]
AA3 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chrysoperla carnea
-
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
5.5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.005
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
UK ACP 1999
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.05
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
UK ACP 1999
-
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.002 mg l⁻¹
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
UK EA QS database 2018
-
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B3 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
C3 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause dermatitis
May cause tremor, convulsions, paralysis, cyanosis, slowed respiration and diarrhea
Endocrine issues - Induction of aromatase activity, increase of estrogen production
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Prevent generation of dust
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013
Health: H351
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 3: R40
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S36/37, S46, S60, S61
WHO Classification
U (Unlikely to present an acute hazard)
UN Number
Usually 3077
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group III (minor danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
simazine
French
simazine
German
Simazin
Danish
simazin
Italian
simazina
Spanish
simazina
Greek
simazine
Polish
symazyna
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
simazine

Record last updated: 11/03/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242