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benfluralin (Ref: EL-110)
** bethrodine ** benfuraline ** benefin ** benthrodine ** balan ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Benfluralin is a pre-emergence herbicide that has EU regulatory approval for use. It has a low aqueous solubility and is quite volatile. It is not expected to leach to groundwater. It is moderately persistent in soil systems and not usually persistent in water. It has a low mammalian toxicity but there is concern regarding its potential to bioaccumulate. It is moderately toxic to birds, honeybees, earthworms and most aquatic organisms.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for benfluralin

Description: A pre-emergence herbicide used for grass and other weed control in a range of edible and non-food crops

Example pests controlled: Johnssongrass; Chickweed; Lambsquarter; Purslane; Knotweed; Clover; Pigweed; Plantains

Example applications: Alfalfa; Turf; Lettuce; Some speciality crops including chicory; Ornamentals including Christmas trees; Non-bearing fruit and nut trees; Non-cropped areas such as rights-of-way, pavements, railways

Efficacy & activity: Shown to be affective in the field via many years of use across Europe and the world.

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1963, USA

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Norway/Netherlands
Date inclusion expires 28/02/2020
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C13H16F3N3O4
Canonical SMILES CCCCN(CC)C1=C(C=C(C=C1[N+](=O)[O-])C(F)(F)F)[N+](=O)[O-]
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) SMDHCQAYESWHAE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C13H16F3N3O4/c1-3-5-6-17(4-2)12-10(18(20)21)7-9(13(14,15)16)8-11(12)19(22)23/h7-8H,3-6H2,1-2H3
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Herbicide
Substance group Dinitroaniline
Minimum active substance purity 960 kg/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - ethyl-butyl-nitrosamine: < 0.1 mg/kg
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Microtubule assembly inhibition
CAS RN 1861-40-1
EC number 217-465-2
CIPAC number 285
US EPA chemical code 084301
PubChem CID 2319
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 335.28
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline
IUPAC name N-butyl-N-ethyl-α,α,α-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-p-toluidine
CAS name N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine
Other status information OSPAR soc
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) K1
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) 3
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Colourless to yellow crystals depending on purity
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Sigma-Aldrich
  • Dow AgroSciences
  • Helena Chemical Co
  • Makhteshim Agan
Example products using this active
  • Bonalan
  • Carpidor
  • Benefex
  • Emblem
  • Balan
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Often available as an emulsifiable concentrate that is mixed with water and used as a spray.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for benfluralin

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 0.064 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 250000 A5 - Xylene -
41000 A5 - Methanol -
250000 A5 - Acetone -
250000 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
Melting point (oC) 66.4 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 205 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.55 X 1005 Calculated -
Log P 5.19 A5 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.42 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC -0.59 A5 - -
Note: Very strong acid
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 1.8 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 9.5 A5 Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index -0.75 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g-1 are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated High
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral solution: 239nm = 9180, 283nm = 8010; [Acidic solution: 248nm = 4390, 298nm = 4580, 448nm = 3870; [Basic solution: 238nm = 7550, 283nm = 6370, 431nm = 3720 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 120.4 A5 Persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 120.4 A5 Persistent
DT50 (field) 53 A5 Moderately persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 404.5 A5 -
DT90 (field) 175 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU 2017 dossier lab studies DT50 range 54.4-198 days, DT90 range 181-675 days, Soils=4; field studies DT50 range 34-73 days, DT90 range 115-242 days
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 61.6 R3 -
Note Turfgrass thatch, n=1
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 0.1 A5 Fast
Note Unstable in UV light
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable pH 4 to pH 9
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 1.2 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 0.75 A5 Fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - A5 Non-mobile
Koc 10777
Notes and range EU 2008 dossier 8519-14400 mL/g; Other literature Koc range 4000-10,700 mL/g
Freundlich Kf 646 A5 Non-mobile
Kfoc 22914
1/n 1.15
Notes and range EU 2017 dossier Kf range 129.6-2027.1 mL/g, Kfoc range 10736-53345 mL/g, 1/n range 1.06-1.30, Soils=4
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenol Soil   0.052   Minor, Relevancy unknown

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
3-nitro-5(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-benzenediamine des-alkylbenfluralin diamine Water (Photolysis) 0.115 -
4-nitro-2-propyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole propyl benzimidazole Water (Photolysis) 0.164 -
2-methyl-4-nitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole methyl benzimidazole Water (Photolysis) 0.114 -
1-ethyl-7-nitro-2-prpyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole ethyl propyl benzimidazole; U6#1 Water (Photolysis) 0.195 -
N2-butyl-N2-ethyl-3-nitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-benzene-1,2-diamine benfluralin diamine Rat - -
N2-butyl-N2-ethyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,3-benzenetriamine - Rat - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for benfluralin

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 1572 A5 Whole fish Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) 1.3 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 0.5 L3 Rat High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2000 A5 Colinus virginianus Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 5000 mg kg feed-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.081 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.0019 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 100 A5 Daphnia magna Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.0155 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.043 A5 Americamysis bahia High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.231 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) 0.112 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.02 A5 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) > 100 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Low
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 110.7 A5 Low
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 500 A5 Eisenia foetida, corr Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 30.8 A5 Eisenia foetida, 56 days corr Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect 5.5 A5 Folsomia candida, 28 day NOEC mg kg-1 -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 3.4
-18.4
Mortality
Reproduction
Dose: 0.084 l ha-1
A5 Typhlodromus pyri, protonymphs
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 100.0 Mortality
Dose: 0.084 l ha-1
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 45 l product ha-1, 28 days
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for benfluralin

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 5000 A5 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 2.16 A5 Rat, (dust, nose only) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.005 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.035 A5 Rat, SF=500 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 2-11 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 List II - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Negligible risk to bystanders
Occupational PPE/PPC required for operators and other farm workers
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues Possible liver, thyroid and kidney toxicant

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
CLP classification 2013 Health: H371, H351, H315, H319, H317
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Carcinogen category 3: R40
Xn - Harmful: R43
Xi - Irritant: R38, R36
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases -
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
US EPA Classification (formulation) - -
UN Number Usually 3077
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for benfluralin

Language Name
English benfluralin
French benfluraline
German Benfluralin
Danish benfluralin
Italian benfluralin
Spanish benfluralina
Greek -
Slovenian benfluralin
Polish benfluralina
Swedish -
Hungarian benfluralin
Dutch -

Record last updated: Wednesday 03 April 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk