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Triforine (Ref: AC 902194)
Last updated: 20/03/2021
(Also known as: SC 581211)

SUMMARY
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Drainflow: Slightly mobile
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Bees acute oral ecotoxicity: Moderate; Earthworms acute ecotoxicity: Moderate
Human health
High alert:
Reproduction/development effects
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A fungicide active against a range of diseases including powdery mildew, scab and rust
Example pests controlled
Powdery mildew; Black rot; Scab; Storage diseases
Example applications
Cereals; Curcubits; Mushrooms; Almonds; Fruit including blueberries, cherries, peaches, apples, grapes, mangoes; hops; Ornamentals including roses;
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1970
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Not applicable
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Also used in
Australia, USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A chiral molecule. The technical material is an isomeric mixture.
Chemical formula
C₁₀H₁₄Cl₆N₄O₂
Canonical SMILES
C1CN(CCN1C(C(Cl)(Cl)Cl)NC=O)C(C(Cl)(Cl)Cl)NC=O
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
RROQIUMZODEXOR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10H14Cl6N4O2/c11-9(12,13)7(17-5-21)19-1-2-20(4-3-19)8(18-6-22)10(14,15)16/h5-8H,1-4H2,(H,17,21)(H,18,22)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Fungicide
Substance group
Piperazine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Systemic with protectant, eradicant and curative characteristics
CAS RN
26644-46-2
EC number
247-872-0
CIPAC number
360
US EPA chemical code
107901
PubChem CID
33565
Molecular mass
434.96
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
N,N'-[piperazine-1,4-diylbis(2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diyl)]diformamide
IUPAC name
N,N'-{piperazine-1,4-diylbis[(trichloromethyl)methylene]}diformamide
CAS name
N,N'-(1,4-piperazinediylbis(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene))bis(formamide)
Other status information
PAN Bad Actor Chemical
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
3
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
White to brown crystals
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Orica
  • Shell
  • Celamerck
Example products using this active
  • Brolly
  • Denarin
  • Funginex
  • Nimrod T
  • Saprol
Formulation and application details
Usually formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate, liquid seed treatment or wettable powder
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
9
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
11000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
1000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Dichloromethane
-
10000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Methanol
-
Melting point (°C)
Decomposes on melting
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
155
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.51 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.4
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.55
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
10.6
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Strong base
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
26
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.88 X 10-03
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
19
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
19
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
21
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
4.8
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 2.5-6.0 days, 2 field crops, various matrices, n=3
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
0.2
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Fast
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
2.2
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
22
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
25
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Slow
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Slightly mobile
Koc
527
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
1.69 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
4.42 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Low Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Slightly mobile Calculated -
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
chloralformamide - Human (urine) - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
1
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 16000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 year
-
(ppm diet)
200 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
5000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
1000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Salmonidae
Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
25
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
380
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Scenedemus subspicatus
Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
10
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Moderate
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmless [Dose: 600 g ha⁻¹]
AA3 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
3 = Unverified data of known source
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmless [Dose: 600 g ha⁻¹]
AA3 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chrysoperla carnea
-
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 16000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
10000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
4.5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat 1 hr
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.02
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
JMPR 1997
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
Liver toxicant
USEPA - some evidence to suggest possible human carcinogen
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H332
EC Risk Classification
N - Dangerous for the environment: R52/53
EC Safety Classification
S61
WHO Classification
U (Unlikely to present an acute hazard)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
triforine
French
triforine
German
Triforin
Danish
triforine
Italian
triforine
Spanish
triforine
Greek
-
Polish
triforina
Swedish
-
Hungarian
triforin
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 20/03/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242