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zoxamide (Ref: RH 7281)
** benzamide ** RH 117281 ** zoxium ** HSDB 7278 ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

A fungicide with approval for use in the EU and many other countries. It has a low aqueous solubility, is volatile and has a low potential for leaching to groundwater. It is not usually persistent in soil or water systems. Zoxamide has a low mammalian toxicity but is a probably skin sensitiser and a recognised eye irritant. It is moderately toxic to most fauna and flora.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for zoxamide

Description: A fungicide used for the control of various fungal inflections including blight in potatoes and tomatoes

Example pests controlled: Early and late blight; Leaf blight; Anthracnose; Downy mildew; Bunch rot; Dead arm

Example applications: Potatoes; Grapes; Tomatoes; Curcubits including gourd, melons, squash; Onions and garlic

Efficacy & activity: Efficacy demonstrated via field trials and extensive use.

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 2001, Europe

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Latvia/France
Date inclusion expires 30/06/2033
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism Chiral, a specific isomer or a derivative of a chiral molecule
Chemical formula C14H16Cl3NO2
Canonical SMILES CCC(C)(C(=O)CCl)NC(=O)C1=CC(=C(C(=C1)Cl)C)Cl
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) SOUGWDPPRBKJEX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C14H16Cl3NO2/c1-4-14(3,12(19)7-15)18-13(20)9-5-10(16)8(2)11(17)6-9/h5-6H,4,7H2,1-3H3,(H,18,20)
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Fungicide
Substance group Benzamide
Minimum active substance purity 953 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Contact with additional vapour activity. Rainfast preventative action with residual properties. Inhibition of mitosis and cell division (Beta-tubulin assembly in mitosis).
CAS RN 156052-68-5
EC number -
CIPAC number 640
US EPA chemical code 101702
PubChem CID 122087
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 336.64
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) rac-3,5-dichloro-N-[(3R)-1-chloro-3-methyl-2-oxopentan-3-yl]-4-methylbenzamide
IUPAC name (RS)-3,5-dichloro-N-(3-chloro-1-ethyl-1-methyl-2-oxopropyl)-p-toluamide
CAS name 3,5-dichloro-N-(3-chloro-1-ethyl-1-methyl-2-oxopropyl)-4-methylbenzamide
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) 22
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White powder
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Dow AgroSciences
  • Rohm and Haas
Example products using this active
  • Gavel
  • Electis
  • Zoxium 80 WP
  • Tirms
UK LERAP status Buffer probably required in UK - see product label
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as aqueous flowable concentrates and wettable powders.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for zoxamide

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 0.681 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 20000 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
55700 A5 - Acetone -
1560 A5 - Xylene -
38 A5 - n-Heptane -
Melting point (oC) 159.5 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 160 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 5.75 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P 3.76 A5 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.38 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.013 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 6.59 X 10-03 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.68 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 4.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral soln: 241.2nm=10034, 212nm=46330
Acidic soln: 241.4=11549, 212.4nm=49596
Alkaline soln: 244.8nm=13300, 218.2nm=29899
A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 5.5 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 5.5 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 6 E4 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 35.2 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU 2018 dossier DT50 lab studies range 1.87-34.27 days, DT90 range 6.62-115 days, Soils=8; Manufacturers published data field DT50 2-10 days; Other sources: DT50 15 days (DW4)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 8 A5 Moderately fast
Note Test conditions equivalent to summer sunlight in New Jersey USA, 42 deg N
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 15.7 A5 Non-persistent
Note pH sensitive: DT50 16 days at pH 4, 8 days at pH 9, all at 25 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 6.4 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 3 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - A4 Slightly mobile
Koc 1224
Notes and range Manufacturers published data Koc circa 1000 mL/g (E3)
Freundlich Kf 13.3 A5 Slightly mobile
Kfoc 1224.2
1/n 0.973
Notes and range EU 2016 dossier kf range 3.36-25.33 mL/g, Kfoc range 815-1431 mL/g, 1/n range 0.973-1.067, Soils=6
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
3,5-dichloro-N-(2-carboxy-1-ethyl-1-methyl-2-oxoethyl)-4-methylbenzamide (Ref: RH-163353) This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.150   Major fraction, Relevant
3,5-dichloro-N-(1-ethyl-1-methyl-2-oxopropyl)-4-methylbenzamide (Ref: RH-127450) This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.151   Major fraction, Relevant
3,5-dichloro-4-methylbenzoic acid (Ref: RH-24549) This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.338   Major fraction, Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
3,5-dichloro-N-(3-hydroxy-1-ethyl-1-methyl-2-oxopropyl)-4-methylbenzamide
(Ref: RH 141288)
RH-1288 Water (Hydrolysis) - -
2-(3,5-dichloro-4-methylphenyl)-4-ethyl-4-methyl-4H-1,3-oxazin-5(6H)-one
(Ref: RH-129151)
RH-9151 Water (Hydrolysis) 0.164 -
3,5-dichloro-4-methylbenzamide
(Ref: RH-139432)
RH-9432 - - -
3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid
(Ref: RH-141452)
RH-1452 - - -
3,5-dichloro-N-(1-ethyl-1-methyl-2-oxopropyl)-4-hydroxymethylbenzamide
(Ref: RH-141454)
RH-1454 - - -
3,5-dichloro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid3,5-dichloro-terephthalic acid
(Ref: RH-141455)
RH-1455 Soil 0.08 -
3,5-dichloro-N-(2-carboxy-1-ethyl-1-methyl)-4-methylbenzamide
(Ref: RH-141643)
RH-1643 - - -
3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxymethylbenzamide
(Ref: RH-149736)
RH-9736 - - -
4-carboxy-3,5-dichlorobenzamide
(Ref: RH-149737)
RH-9737 - - -
(3-amino-3-methyl-2-oxo)pentyl-(3,5-dichloro-4-methyl)benzoate
(Ref: RH-150721)
RH-0721 Water (a = Hydrolysis, b = Photolysis) - -
3,5-dichloro-4-methylbenzoic acid
(Ref: RH-24549)
RH-4549 Soil (a = Aerobic, b = Anaerobic, c = Photolysis); Water (d = Hydrolysis, e = Pholtolysis) a=0.338; b=0.237; c=0.222 -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for zoxamide

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 115 A5 Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) 0.4 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) > 50 A4 Dog High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2000 A5 Colinus virginianus Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 5250 mg kg feed-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.16 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.004 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 0.78 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.039 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.45 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.017 A5 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.011 A5 Scenedemus subspicatus Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Low
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 535 A5 Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 0.05 A5 High
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 Harmless Dose: 150 g ha-1
L3 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect 0 Mortality
Dose: 0.3 kg ha-1
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi, adult
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 Harmless Dose: 150 g ha-1
L3 Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect 29 Mortality
Dose: 0.3 kg ha-1
A5 Typhlodromus pyri, adult
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 2 mg kg-1 soil
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for zoxamide

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 5.3 A5 Rat, 4 hr (nose only) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.5 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.3 A5 Rat, 90 day, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 4.0-10.0 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public No unacceptable risks to bystanders identified
Occupational No unacceptable risks to operators or other workers identified
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

General human health issues Liver and thyroid toxicant

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
CLP classification 2013 Health: H317, H319
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R43
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50/53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S24, S37, S46, S60, S61
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for zoxamide

Language Name
English zoxamide
French zoxamide
German Zoxamide
Danish zoxamid
Italian zoxamide
Spanish zoxamida
Greek -
Slovenian zoksamid
Polish zoksamid
Swedish zoxamid
Hungarian zoxamid
Dutch -

Record last updated: Monday 29 October 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk