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Bensulide (Ref: R 4461)
Last updated: 28/04/2021
(Also known as: benzulfide)

SUMMARY
Bensulide is a herbicide without approval for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, miscible with most common organic solvents and shows a low to moderate volatility. It may persist in soil and water systems under certain conditions. They is a low risk of leaching to groundwater. Bensulide has a moderate toxicity to humans as well as being a cholinesterase inhibitor and a neurotoxin. It is moderately toxic to birds, fish, aquatic plants and honeybees.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
Persistent; Potential for particle bound transport: High
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Daphnia chronic ecotoxicity: High
Human health
High alert:
Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A selective, pre-emergence organophosphorus herbicide
Example pests controlled
Bluegrass; Crabgrass; Pigweed; Red deadnettle; Goosegrass; Lambsquarters; Shepherd's purse; Fescue; Bentgrass
Example applications
Carrots; Cucumbers; Melon; Peppers; Lettuce; Brassicas; Squash; Tomatoes; Cotton; Turf
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1962
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
-
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Australia
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₄H₂₄NO₄PS₃
Canonical SMILES
CC(C)OP(=S)(OC(C)C)SCCNS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
RRNIZKPFKNDSRS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C14H24NO4PS3/c1-12(2)18-20(21,19-13(3)4)22-11-10-15-23(16,17)14-8-6-5-7-9-14/h5-9,12-13,15H,10-11H2,1-4H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
bensulide -
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide
Substance group
Phosphorodithioate
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Selective, acts by inhibiting germination, absorbed through leaves and roots
CAS RN
741-58-2
EC number
212-010-4
CIPAC number
295
US EPA chemical code
009801
PubChem CID
12932
Molecular mass
397.51
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
S-[2-(benzenesulfonamido)ethyl] O,O-di(propan-2-yl) phosphorodithioate
IUPAC name
O,O-diisopropyl S-2-phenylsulfonylaminoethyl phosphorodithioate
CAS name
O,O-bis(1-methylethyl) S-[2-[(phenylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl] phosphorodithioate
Other status information
Potential groundwater contaminant; PAN Bad Actor
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
N
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
8
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Colourless to yellow viscous liquid
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Exporsan
  • Betasan
  • Pre-San
  • Betamec
  • Prefar
  • Agway Betasan
  • Acme Stopit Crabgrass Preventer
Example products using this active
  • Scotts Co
  • Gowan Co
  • PBI
  • Stauffer
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate or as granules.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
25
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
Miscible
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Acetone
-
Miscible
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Ethanol
-
Miscible
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Xylene
-
Melting point (°C)
34.4
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
-
Degradation point (°C)
100
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
157
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.58 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.2
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.25
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
Not applicable
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
-
No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.133
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
2.11 X 10-03
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
90
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
120
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data. May persist for up to a year
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
200
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Persistent
Note
Not pH sensitive
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
H3 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slightly mobile
Koc
3900
Notes and range
Best available data
Freundlich
Kf
43.1
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Slightly mobile
Kfoc
1448
1/n
1.04
Notes and range
Kf range 11.0-65.4 mL g⁻¹, Kfoc range 785-2037 mL g⁻¹, 1/n - no data, Soils=3
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
1.74 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.79 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Slightly mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
880
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Whole fish
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
270
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
1
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 year
High
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1386
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 1.1
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.58
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
< 0.0042
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.051
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Americamysis bahia
High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
0.11
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lemna gibba
Moderate
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
24.0
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Apis mellifera
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 1.6
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1000
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Eisenia foetida
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
270
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
1.75
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Moderately toxic
May cause convulsions at high doses
May cause respiratory problems
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S22, S61, S36, S60
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
2902
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
bensulide
French
bensulide
German
Bensulid
Danish
bensulid
Italian
bensulide
Spanish
bensulida
Greek
-
Polish
bensulid
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
bensulide

Record last updated: 28/04/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242