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biphenyl
** diphenyl ** phenylbenzene ** bibenzene ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Biphenyl is a fungicide not approved for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility and a moderate volatility. Based on its physico-chemical properties it would not be expected to leach to groundwater. It is not persistent in soil systems but could persist in water systems under certain conditions. It has a low toxicity to mammals but may be a neurotoxin and liver toxicant. Biphenyl is also a skin sensitiser and a recognised skin, eye and respiratory irritant. It is moderately toxic to fish, algae and aquatic invertebrates.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for biphenyl

Description: An aromatic fungicide used mainly on citrus and other crops. Biphenyl is not effective against certain fungal pathogens such as stem-end rots.

Example pests controlled: Mainly active against Penicillium spp.

Example applications: Citrus; Grapes; Potatoes; Cucumbers; Tomatoes

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Unknown

Introduction & key dates: 1944, first described

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Poland
Date inclusion expires Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) -
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism None
Chemical formula C12H10
Canonical SMILES C1=CC=C(C=C1)C2=CC=CC=C2
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) ZUOUZKKEUPVFJK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C12H10/c1-3-7-11(8-4-1)12-9-5-2-6-10-12/h1-10H
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Fungicide
Substance group Aromatic hydrocarbon
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Inhibits sporulation, lipid peroxidation
CAS RN 92-52-4
EC number 202-163-5
CIPAC number None allocated
US EPA chemical code 017002
PubChem CID 7095
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 154.21
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) 1,1'-biphenyl
IUPAC name biphenyl
CAS name 1,1'-biphenyl
Other status information VOC
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards UK statutory standard for protection of inland, coastal and territorial waters for aquatic life 25 ug/L as annual average
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) 14
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Colourless crystals
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically -
Example products using this active -
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Supplied in a range of formulations including foliar sprays. For citrus biphenyl is often impregnated into paper wraps for individual fruits or for paper packagings to prevent storage rot.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for biphenyl

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 6.94 V3 - @ 25 DegC Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) - - -
Melting point (oC) 70.5 L3 -
Boiling point (oC) 256 L3 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) 106 L3 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 9.55 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P 3.98 V3 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.04 L3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC - - -
Note:
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 1238 Q2 Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 3.12 X 1001 V3 Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.32 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.26 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 3 Q2 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note Literature estimates DT50 range 1.5-7 days
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable P3 -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - R3 Slightly mobile
Koc 2085
Notes and range Koc range 870-3,300 mL/g
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for biphenyl

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 340 R3 Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 2140 V3 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 1.5 F4 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 2.38 F4 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.17 P3 Unknown species Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 1.3 CA3 Chlamydomonas angulosa Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for biphenyl

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 2140 V3 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) - - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.005 L2 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.125 JMPR 1967 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits [UK LT TWA 8 hr: 1.5 mg/m3], [UL STEL 15 mins: 4 mg/m3] Occupation Exposure -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational -
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues Exerts toxic effects on the central nervous system and liver
May cause skin sensitization or dermatitis

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Prevent generation of dust and vapours
CLP classification 2013 Health: H315, H319, H335
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xi - Irritant: R36/37/38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S23, S60, S61
WHO Classification III - Slightly hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for biphenyl

Language Name
English biphenyl
French biphényle
German Biphenyl
Danish biphenyl
Italian bifenile
Spanish bifenilo
Greek biphenyl
Slovenian bifenil
Polish bifenyl
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch bifenyl

Record last updated: Wednesday 23 May 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk