Top Environmental Fate Ecotoxicology Human Health Translations
Home
A to Z: All
A to Z: Insecticides
A to Z: Herbicides
A to Z: Fungicides
A to Z: Other product constituents
Search
Support information
Purchasing and licensing
Bromacil (Ref: DPX N0976)
Last updated: 28/04/2021
(Also known as: borocil; herbicide 976)

SUMMARY
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
GUS: High leachability; Drainflow: Mobile
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Fish chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate
Human health
Moderate alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: Moderate; Possible Carcinogen; Possible Endocrine distrupter
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A soil acting uracil herbicide used to control a wide variety of annual and perennial weeds mainly on non-crop areas and fruit
Example pests controlled
Barnyardgrass; Crabgrass; Henbit; Lambsquarters; Purslane; Annual sedge; Mustard; Bermudagrass; Nutsedge
Example applications
Fruit including citrus, pineapples; Brush; Roads, rights-of-way, railways, pavements
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1961, USA
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Australia, USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A chiral molecule esixting in the R- and S-forms
Chemical formula
C₉H₁₃BrN₂O₂
Canonical SMILES
CCC(C)N1C(=O)C(=C(NC1=O)C)Br
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
CTSLUCNDVMMDHG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C9H13BrN2O2/c1-4-5(2)12-8(13)7(10)6(3)11-9(12)14/h5H,4H2,1-3H3,(H,11,14)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
bromacil Unstated isomer
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide
Substance group
Uracil
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Absorbed mainly via root system, non-selective. Inhibits photosynthesis (photosystem II).
CAS RN
314-40-9
EC number
206-245-1
CIPAC number
139
US EPA chemical code
012301
PubChem CID
9411
Molecular mass
261.12
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
rac-(3R)-5-bromo-3-(butan-2-yl)-6-methylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione
IUPAC name
(RS)-5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil
CAS name
5-bromo-6-methyl-3-(1-methylpropyl)-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione
Other status information
Potential groundwater contaminant; Potential marine pollutant; PAN Bad Actor
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
C1
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
5
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
White crystals
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Hyvar X bromoacil
  • Borocil 1V
  • Cynogan
  • Borea
  • Krovar II
  • Urgan
Example products using this active
  • Nufarm
  • DuPont
  • Loveland
  • Makhteshim-Agan
Formulation and application details
Available in a variety of formulations including wettable powders, water soluble liquids and granules.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
815
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
167000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Acetone
-
134000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Ethanol
-
32000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Xylene
-
Melting point (°C)
158.5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
158
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
7.59 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P
1.88
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.59
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
9.27
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
-
Very weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
4.10 X 10-02
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.50 X 10-05
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
60
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Other sources: DT₅₀ 5-6 months in silt loam soil (R3)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
Stable
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Note
Stable at pH 5 and pH 7
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Stable
Note
Stable at all relevant pHs
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mobile
Koc
32
Notes and range
Other sources: log Koc 1.51 (Q3); General literature: Koc 2.3 to 289 (CA3)
Freundlich
Kf
2.9
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Moderately mobile
Kfoc
117
1/n
0.917
Notes and range
Data for freshwater sediments Kf range 0.56-6.35 mL.g, Kfoc range 26.3-289 mL g⁻¹, 1/n range 0.89-0.98, Soils = 9
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
3.44 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.51 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Mobile Calculated -
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
5-bromo-6-methyluracil - Soil (Aerobic) - -
5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-hydroxymethyluracil - Soil (Aerobic) - -
3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil - Soil (Aerobic) - -
5-bromo-3-(alpha-hydroxymethylpropyl)-6-methyluracil - Soil (Aerobic) - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
2.8
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Whole fish
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1300
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 year
-
(ppm diet)
50 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2250
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 36
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lepomis macrochirus
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 95.6
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Pimephales promelas
Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 119
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 67.0
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Americamysis bahia
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.013
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Unknown species
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.01
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Green algae population study
Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 100
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmless [Dose: 960 g ha⁻¹]
AA2 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmless [Dose: 960 g ha⁻¹]
AA2 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Chrysoperla carnea
-
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1300
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
5000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
5.6
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.13
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause inflammation of the stomach and intestinal mucous membranes, gastroenteritis or liver damage
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H315, H319, H335
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50/53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S13, S20/21, S35, S46, S57
WHO Classification
U (Unlikely to present an acute hazard)
UN Number
3077
Waste disposal & packaging
Packging Group III (minor danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
bromacil
French
bromacil
German
Bromacil
Danish
bromacil
Italian
bromacile
Spanish
bromacilo
Greek
-
Polish
bromacyl
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 28/04/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242