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Sulfadiazine
Last updated: 04/03/2020
(Also known as: adiazine; diazolone; SDZ; SDA; sulfanilamidopyrimidine; sulfapyrimidine)

GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A commonly used synthetically produced livestock antibiotic / antimicrobial with antiparasitic properties
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
circa 1935, discovered
Examples of species treated
Dogs, Cats, Horses, Cattle, Poultry, Pigs
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁0H₁0N₄O₂S
Canonical SMILES
C1=CN=C(N=C1)NS(=O)(=O)C2=CC=C(C=C2)N
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
SEEPANYCNGTZFQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10H10N4O2S/c11-8-2-4-9(5-3-8)17(15,16)14-10-12-6-1-7-13-10/h1-7H,11H2,(H,12,13,14)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
sulfadiazine -
General status
Veterinary substance type
Antiparasitic, Antibacterial, Coccidiostat, Antiprotozoal
Substance group
Sulfonamide
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Inhibits the production of folic acid necessary for the growth and multiplication of bacteria
Molecular targets
[Dihydropteroate synthetase, antagonist]
CAS RN
68-35-9
EC number
200-685-8
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QJ01EW10
Therapeutic Class
Antiinfectants for systemic use: Antibacterials for systemic use
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed substance (Table 1: All food producing species)
Molecular mass
250.278
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
4-amino-N-pyrimidin- 2-yl-benzenesulfonamide
CAS name
4-amino-N-2-pyrimidinylbenzenesulfonamide
Other status information
Potential groundwater pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
White to slightly yellow crystalline powder
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Cotrimoxgen Tablets Norbrook Labs UK National authorisation (IC) Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Norodine 80mg Tablets Norbrook Labs UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Trimacare 24% Solution for injection Norbrook Labs UK National authorisation (IC) Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Equibactin vet. Le Vet B.V. EU Mutually recognised procedure Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as tablets or in formulations for preparation as injection solutions
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
130
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
252
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
8.13 X 10-01 Calculated -
Log P
-0.09
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
2.49
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
pKa(2) = 6.48
Vapour pressure at 20 °C
5.73 X 10-03
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C
- - -
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
Stable
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
5.5
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Moderately mobile
Koc
81
Notes and range
General literature states Koc range 37-125 mL g⁻¹
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
N4-acetyl-sulfadiazine Ac-SDZ Animals (urinary) - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1500
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Mouse
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 57
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
0.135
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Microcystis aeruginosa
Moderate
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
7.8
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
< 1.00
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Selenastrum capricornutum
Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1500
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Mouse
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ = 750 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
Intravenous LD₅₀ = 880 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Elimination route and rate
Largely excreted in the urine
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
Possible kidney and renal system toxicant
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1
CLP classification 2013
-
EC Risk Classification
-
EC Safety Classification
S26-S36
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group III (minor danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
sulfadiazine
French
sulfadiazine
German
Sulfapyrimidin
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
sulfadiazina
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 04/03/2020
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242