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Apramycin
Last updated: 07/04/2021
(Also known as: nebramycin II)

GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An antibiotic and antibacterial compound used in veterinary medicine including the treatment of colibacillosis and salmonella in calves and bacterial enteritis in pigs and lambs
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
-
Examples of species treated
Pigs, Lambs, Cattle, Chickens
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Isomeric
Chemical formula
C₂₁H₄₁N₅O₁₁
Canonical SMILES
CNC1C(C2C(CC(C(O2)OC3C(CC(C(C3O)O)N)N)N)OC1OC4C(C(C(C(O4)CO)N)O)O)O
Isomeric SMILES
CN[C@H]1[C@H]([C@@H]2[C@H](C[C@H]([C@H](O2)O[C@@H]3[C@H](C[C@H]([C@@H]([C@H]3O)O)N)N)N)O[C@@H]1O[C@@H]4[C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O4)CO)N)O)O)O
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
XZNUGFQTQHRASN-XQENGBIVSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C21H41N5O11/c1-26-11-14(30)18-8(33-20(11)37-21-16(32)13(29)10(25)9(4-27)34-21)3-7(24)19(36-18)35-17-6(23)2-5(22)12(28)15(17)31/h5-21,26-32H,2-4,22-25H2,1H3/t5-,6+,7-,8+,9-,10-,11+,12+,13+,14-,15-,16-,17-,18+,19?,20-,21-/m1/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Veterinary substance type
Antibiotic, Antimicrobial, Antibacterial
Substance groups
Aminoglycoside
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Inhibitor of protein synthesis in bacteria both in vivo and in vitro
Molecular targets
[16S rRNA]
CAS RN
37321-09-8
EC number
253-460-1
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QJ51GB90; QA07AA92; QJ01GB90
Therapeutic Class
Antiinfectants for systemic use: Antibacterials for intramammary use; Alimentary tract & metabolism: Intestinal antiinfectants; Antiinfectants for systemic use: Antibacterials for systemic use
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed substance (Table 1: Bovine, Ovine, Pocine, Chicken, Rabbit)
Molecular mass
539.58
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
(2R,3R,4S,5S,6S)-2-[[(2R,3S,4R,4aR,6S,7R,8aS)-7-amino-6-[(1R,2R,3S,4R,6S)-4,6-diamino-2,3-dihydroxycyclohexyl]oxy-4-hydroxy-3-(methylamino)-2,3,4,4a,6,7,8,8a-octahydropyrano[3,2-b]pyran-2-yl]oxy]-5-amino-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4-diol
CAS name
D-Streptamine,O-4-amino-4-deoxy-a-D-glucopyranosyl-(1®8)-O-(8R)-2-amino-2,3,7-trideoxy-7-(methylamino)-D-glycero-a-D-allo-octodialdo-1,5:8,4-dipyranosyl-(1®4)-2-deoxy-
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Colourless, needle-shaped crystals
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Apralan Soluble Powder for Oral Solution Eli Lilly Company UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Apralan G200 Premix medicated feeding stuff Eli Lilly Company UK National authorisation (IC) Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Formulation and application details
Often supplied as a powder which is added to livestock's drinking water. Also available as premix and pour-on formulations
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
300000
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
189
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
823
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
451.6
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
5.01 X 10-04 Calculated -
Log P
-3.3
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.56
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
8.5
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
500755
Notes and range
Literature values Koc range 341900 - 659609 mL g⁻¹
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 4160
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat as the sulphate
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1669
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
> 100
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Eisenia foetida
Low
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
300
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
101.6
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 4160
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat as the sulphate
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intravenous LD₅₀ = 280 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Apramycin is rapidly absorbed when administered orally and is excreted via the kidneys without metabolisation
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Possible kidney toxicant
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes
Corrosive
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
apramycin
French
apramycine
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
apramicina
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 07/04/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242