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Avilamycin A (Ref: CGA 59327)
Last updated: 07/04/2021
(Also known as: HSDB 7029; avilamycine; surmax; avilamycin)

GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An antibiotic drug active against Gram-posive bacteria and which has growth-promoting properties in pigs and poultry. It is also used to control stress-induced post-weaning diarrhea in piglets, caused mainly by Escherichia coli
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
-
Examples of species treated
Pigs, Poultry
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Isomeric
Chemical formula
C₆₁H₈₈Cl₂O₃₂
Canonical SMILES
CC1C(C(CC(O1)OC2C(OC3(CC2O)OC4C(OC(CC4(O3)C)OC5C(C(OC(C5OC)C)OC6C(OC(C(C6O)OC)OC7C(C8C(CO7)OC9(O8)C1C(C(C(O9)C)(C(=O)C)O)OCO1)OC(=O)C(C)C)COC)O)C)C)O)OC(=O)C1=C(C(=C(C(=C1OC)Cl)O)Cl)C
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@@H]1[C@H]([C@@H](C[C@@H](O1)O[C@@H]2[C@H](OC3(C[C@H]2O)O[C@@H]4[C@H](O[C@H](C[C@]4(O3)C)O[C@@H]5[C@H]([C@@H](O[C@@H]([C@@H]5OC)C)O[C@@H]6[C@H](O[C@H]([C@H]([C@H]6O)OC)OC7[C@@H]([C@H]8[C@H](CO7)O[C@@]9(O8)[C@H]1[C@H]([C@@]([C@H](O9)C)(C(=O)C)O)OCO1)OC(=O)C(C)C)COC)O)C)C)O)OC(=O)C1=C(C(=C(C(=C1OC)Cl)O)Cl)C
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
XIRGHRXBGGPPKY-OTPQUNEMSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C61H88Cl2O32/c1-21(2)53(70)87-49-45-32(92-61(93-45)52-51(78-20-79-52)60(72,27(8)64)28(9)91-61)19-77-56(49)89-57-48(76-14)39(68)44(31(83-57)18-73-11)88-55-40(69)47(43(74-12)24(5)82-55)85-34-17-58(10)50(26(7)81-34)94-59(95-58)16-30(66)42(25(6)90-59)84-33-15-29(65)41(23(4)80-33)86-54(71)35-22(3)36(62)38(67)37(63)46(35)75-13/h21,23-26,28-34,39-45,47-52,55-57,65-69,72H,15-20H2,1-14H3/t23-,24-,25-,26-,28-,29-,30-,31-,32+,33+,34+,39+,40-,41-,42-,43+,44-,45-,47-,48+,49-,50-,51-,52-,55+,56?,57+,58-,59u,60+,61-/m1/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Veterinary substance type
Antibiotic, Antibacterial, Medicinal drug, Growth promotor, Feed additive
Substance groups
Oligosaccharide
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Semi-synthetic
Mode of action
Inhibits the protein synthesis of susceptible micro-organisms, binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit
Molecular targets
[50S rRNA, antagonist]
CAS RN
11051-71-1
EC number
-
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
-
Therapeutic Class
-
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
No data
Molecular mass
1403
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
[(2R,3S,4R,6S)-6-[(2'R,3'S,3aR,4R,4'R,6S,7aR)-6-[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-[(2R,3S,4S,5S,6S)-6-[(2R,3aS,3'aR,6'R,7R,7'S,7aR,7'aR)-7'-acetyl-7'-hydroxy-6'-methyl-7-(2-methylpropanoyloxy)spiro[4,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-3aH-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-c]pyran-2,4'-6,7a-dihydro-3aH-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-c]pyran]-6-yl]oxy-4-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-(methoxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy-3-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyloxan-4-yl]oxy-4'-hydroxy-2',4,7a-trimethylspiro[3a,4,6,7-tetrahydro-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-c]pyran-2,6'-oxane]-3'-yl]oxy-4-hydroxy-2-methyloxan-3-yl]3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylbenzoate
CAS name
-
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
White crystalline solid with musky odour
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
None identified None identified No UK authorisation for use with animals Not applicable
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as a medicated pre-mix feed
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
1000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
4000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Ethanol
-
5000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Methanol
-
10000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Ethyl acetate
-
50000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Acetone
-
Melting point (°C)
181
E4 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
4 = Verified data
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
- - -
Log P
- - -
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
25
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
Literature states DT₅₀ in soil 3 to 4 weeks
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
28
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Manure
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Slightly mobile
Koc
2744
Notes and range
Literature Koc values range 1802-3685 mL g⁻¹
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
0.79 Calculated Low leachability
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
flambic acid - Rat (Liver) - -
flambalactone - - - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 4640
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 372.5
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Colinus virginianus
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
> 745 ppm
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Colinus virginianus
-
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
47.8
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
23.8
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Low
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 4640
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Extensively metabolised and rapidly excreted in the faeces and urine
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
Possible liver toxicant
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
avilamycin A
French
avilamycine A
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
avilamycina A
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 07/04/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242