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Camphechlor (Ref: Hercules 3956)
Last updated: 03/01/2021
(Also known as: toxaphene; polychlorocamphene; chlorocamphene; toxafeen; octachlorocamphene)

SUMMARY
Camphechlor is an obsolete insecticide and acaricide that is not approved for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, is quite volatile and moderately mobile. Based on its chemical properties, it has a high risk of leaching to groundwater. It is not expected to be persistent in soil but may be persistent in water systems. Camphechlor is highly toxic to mammals and is likely to bioaccumulate. It is highly toxic to birds and most aquatic organisms.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An obsolete insecticide that was often used in conjunction with other active substances to control a wide range on insects on crops and livestock
Example pests controlled
Lygus bugs; Aphids; Spidermites; Ticks; Fleas; Mange mites; Lice; Scab mites; Grasshoppers; Armyworms; Cutworms
Example applications
Cotton; Ornamentals; Pineapples; Corn and small grains; Vegetables; Oilseeds; Livestock
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Obsolete/Banned
Introduction & key dates
1947, first developed
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A chiral molecule
Chemical formula
C₁₀H₁₀Cl₈
Canonical SMILES
C1C2C(C(C(C1(Cl)Cl)(C2(CCl)C(Cl)Cl)CCl)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
YNEKMCSWRMRXIR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10H10Cl8/c11-2-8(7(15)16)4-1-10(17,18)9(8,3-12)6(14)5(4)13/h4-7H,1-3H2
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Acaricide, Veterinary substance
Substance group
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
A non-systemic contact and stomach insecticide. It acts on the neurons, causing an imbalance in sodium and potassium ions, similar to that of the cyclodiene insecticides.
CAS RN
8001-35-2
EC number
232-283-3
CIPAC number
23
US EPA chemical code
080501
PubChem CID
58167
Molecular mass
413.96
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
reaction mixture of chlorinated camphenes containing 67–69% chlorine
CAS name
2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-Octachlorobornane
Other status information
Chemical subject to PIC regulations; OSPAR soc; POP - regulated by Stockholm Convention; Severe Marine Pollutant; Rotterdam Convention (Class O)
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not known
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Yellow to amber waxy solid
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Agrones Hepta
  • Altox
  • Attac
  • Toxaphene
  • Phenacide
  • Phenatox
  • Toxakil
Example products using this active
  • Hercules
  • BCF
Formulation and application details
Usually formulated as a wettable power, dust or emulsifiable concentrate
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
3.0
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
4500000
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Benzene
-
4500000
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Carbon tetrachloride
-
4500000
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Xylene
-
2800000
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Kerosene
-
Melting point (°C)
78
V2 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Range 65-90
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.00 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.3
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.65
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.67
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
6.08 X 10-01
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
365
L1 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
1 = Estimated data with little or no verification
Very persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
9
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Literature sources highly variable: DT₅₀ 2 months and 14 years; US sources: 9 days (DW3, US3); Field DT₅₀ 9 to 500 days (R3)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
3.6
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 1.6-5.0 days, 4 field crops, various matrices, n=4
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
12.6
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 2.3-25.2 days, 4 field crops, various matrices, n=7
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
F2 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Moderately mobile
Koc
295
Notes and range
Literature range for log Koc = 2.47-5.00; Other sources: Koc 100000 mL g⁻¹ (US2)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
1.46 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
1.86 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Moderately mobile Calculated -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
strobane (Ref: ENT 19442)
- - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
76000
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
High potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
50
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 15
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anas platyrhynchos
High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.0044
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Lepomis macrochirus
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.00005
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ictalurus punctatus
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.0141
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.016
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.0021
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Americamysis bahia
High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.38
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
0.144
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Apis mellifera
High
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 19.1
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Apis mellifera
Moderate
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
0.216
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Megachile rotundata
High
Mode of exposure
Contact
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
0.0023
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Nomia melanderi
High
Mode of exposure
Contact
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
50
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Possible risk via food contamination
Occupational
Absorbed by the intact skin and from the gastrointestinal tract
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
IARC group 2B carcinogen
Ingestion may be fatal
May cause convulsions
Potential kidney toxicant
May cause allergic bronchopneumonia
Endocrine issues - Increase of estrogen-sensitive cells proliferation
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Corrosive
Not compatible with strongly alkaline pesticides
CLP classification 2013
Health: H301, H312, H315, H335, H351
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 3: R40
T - Toxic: R25
Xn - Harmful: R21
Xi - Irritant: R40
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S1/2, S36/37, S45, S61, S60
WHO Classification
O (Obsolete substance)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
camphechlor
French
bamphéchlore
German
Camphechlor
Danish
camphechlor, toxaphen
Italian
camfeclor
Spanish
camfeclor
Greek
-
Polish
kamfechlor
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
toxafeen

Record last updated: 03/01/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242