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naphthalene
** tar camphor ** naphthaline ** moth balls ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Naphthalene is only used for non-food applications. Slightly toxic if ingested but more serious effects may be seen if inhaled. It is considered a skin and eye irritant. It is also thought to be carcinogenic. Little is known about its environmental fate mainly because its usage patterns would minimise its release. Data suggests that it would be rapidly lost from the soil by evaporation, volatilization, and biodegradation. Non-toxic to birds and earthworms. It is moderately toxic to aquatic species but exposure is unlikely. No data for the risk posed to honeybees has been identified.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for naphthalene

Description: A largely obsolete insecticide once used as a moth repellant for the protection of textiles and as an animal repellant against nuisance vertebrate pests. It is also a constituent of some inert product additives.

Example pests controlled: Moths

Example applications: Non-cropped situations; Wool clothing and textiles

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Obsolete

Introduction & key dates: 1948, first registered as a pestcide USA

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Not applicable
Date inclusion expires Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) Not applicable
Listed in EU database No

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C10H8
Canonical SMILES C1=CC=C2C=CC=CC2=C1
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) UFWIBTONFRDIAS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C10H8/c1-2-6-10-8-4-3-7-9(10)5-1/h1-8H
Structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Repellent, Other substance, Fumigant
Other constituent type Constituent of some solvents
Substance group Aromatic hydrocarbon
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Repellent action caused by strong odour
CAS RN 91-20-3
EC number 202-049-5
CIPAC number 8222
US EPA chemical code 055801
PubChem CID 931
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 128.17
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) naphthalene
IUPAC name naphthalene
CAS name naphthalene
Other status information Prohibited in Europe since 2008; WFD priority substance
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards EU Directive 2008/105/EC EQS Inland surface waters: 2.4 ug/L; other surface waters 1.2 ug l-1 as annual average
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White crystalline flaky solid
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Reochem Inc., USA
Example products using this active -
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as pellets, granules or flakes and applied by hand.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for naphthalene

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 31.0 F4 - @ 25 DegC Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 285000 L3 - Benzene -
77000 L3 - Methanol -
500000 L3 - Chloroform -
Melting point (oC) 81.2 Q3 -
Boiling point (oC) 218 L3 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) 88 L3 - (closed cup) -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.95 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P 3.29 F4 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.14 Q3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC - - -
Note:
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 6500 L3 Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 2.78 X 1001 L3 Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 2.14 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 9.84 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 80 F3 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note Literature data reports DT50's of around 80 days unless the soil is contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which will facilitate much quicker degradation rates.
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value Stable Q3 -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable Q3 -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) Stable Q3 -
Water phase only DT50 (days) Stable Q3 -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - F3 Slightly mobile
Koc 750
Notes and range Literature states Koc values range 200-1470 ml/g
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene - - - -
1,2-dihydroxy-naphthalene - - - -
2-hydroxchromene-2-carboxylate HCCA - - -
trans-o-hydroxy-benzylidenpyruvate tHBPA - - -
salicyladehyde - - - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for naphthalene

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 714 F3 Cyprinodon variegatus, (whole body) Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2200 L3 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5620 F4 Colinus virginianus Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 0.11 F4 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 15.0 F4 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) > 25.0 F4 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 2730 F4 Eisenia foetida Low
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for naphthalene

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2200 L3 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2500 V3 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 0.34 V3 Rat, 1 hr -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits [LT TLV: 10 ppm] Q3 -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational Exposure may occur via inhalation, skin absorption, ingestion, skin and/or eye contact
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

-

General human health issues Blood toxicant at high doses
Liver toxicant
May cause hemolytic anemia
IARC Group 2B carcinogen

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Flammable
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302, H351
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Carcinogen category 3: R40
Xn - Harmful: R22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50/53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S36/37, S46, S60, S61
WHO Classification O - Obsolete substance
US EPA Classification (formulation) - -
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for naphthalene

Language Name
English naphthalene
French naphtalene
German -
Danish -
Italian -
Spanish -
Greek -
Slovenian -
Polish naftalen
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch -

Record last updated: Thursday 31 May 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk