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Chlordane (Ref: OMS 1437)
Last updated: 22/12/2020
(Also known as: M140; ENT 9932; aspon-chlordane; kypchlor; chlorodane)

SUMMARY
Chlordane is an insecticide that is not approved for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, is quite volatile and is not normally expected to leach to groundwater. It can be very persistent in both soil and water systems. It is moderately toxic to mammals and has a high potential for bio-concentration. It is also neurotoxic and a skin and eye irritant. It is highly toxic to birds, fish and moderately toxic to honeybees.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An organochlorine insecticide once commonly used to control a range of pests but now obsolete and banned
Example pests controlled
Termites; Ants; Wasps; Cockroaches
Example applications
Corn; Citrus; Vegetables; Turf & laens
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Obsolete
Introduction & key dates
circa 1950
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired/Banned
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
-
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired/Banned
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A chiral molecule. Chlordane is a a complex mixture of isomers, other chlorinated hydrocarbons, and a range of by-products
Chemical formula
C₁₀H₆Cl₈
Canonical SMILES
C1C2C(C(C1Cl)Cl)C3(C(=C(C2(C3(Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
BIWJNBZANLAXMG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10H6Cl8/c11-3-1-2-4(5(3)12)9(16)7(14)6(13)8(2,15)10(9,17)18/h2-5H,1H2
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide
Substance group
Organochlorine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
Technical chlordane may contain a large number of different compounds including chlordane isomers
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Non systemic with contact, stomach and respiratory action. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonist.
CAS RN
57-74-9
EC number
200-349-0
CIPAC number
13
US EPA chemical code
058201
PubChem CID
5993
Molecular mass
409.78
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
(1E,2E,3aE,4E,7E,7aE)-1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-4,7-methano-1H-indene
IUPAC name
1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-4,7-methanoindene
CAS name
1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-4,7-methano-1H-indene
Other status information
Chemical subject to PIC regulations; POP - regulated by Stockholm Convention; PAN Dirty Dozen; LRTAP Annex I; OSPAR soc; Marine Pollutant; Rotterdam Convention (Class II)
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
2A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Blattella germanica, Conoderus falli, Ctenocephalides felis, Epitrix tuberis, Psilia rosae, plus others
Physical state
Straw coloured viscous liquid in raw state but powder in product form
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Toxichlor
  • Kypchlor
  • Dowchlor
  • Octachlor
  • Belt
Example products using this active
  • Velsicol
  • Dow
Formulation and application details
Available in a variety of different formulations including enulsifiable concentrates, granules, dusts, wettable powders and oils.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.1
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Cyclohexanone
-
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Isopropanol
-
Melting point (°C)
106
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
6.03 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.78
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderate
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.61
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
Not applicable
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.3
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
0.00039
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
365
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Very persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Other sources: DT₅₀ approx 1 year - persistent (R2); 283 days to 3.8 years (R3); FAO state DT₅₀ = 4 years
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
26.6
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 2.3-76.0 days, 4 field crops, various matrices, n=4
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
Stable
P2 P = Other governments and regulators
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Stable
Note
Not significant degradation route but rate increases in presence of other chemicals such as acetone
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
P2 P = Other governments and regulators
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Stable
Note
Not significant degradation route
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
20000
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-0.77 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g⁻¹ are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Non-mobile Calculated -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
oxychlordane
Soil - Not assessed under 91/414 or 1107/2009
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
8460
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
(Whole body Literature values log BCF range 4.3-4.4 (R3))
High potential
CT₅₀ (days)
1 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
460
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
5
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
83
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.09
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.59
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.07
J3 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna LOEC
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.01
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chironomus plumosus
High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
6.0
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
460
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
200
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.56
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.0005
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
JMPR 1994
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Via inhalation and dermal absorption but exposure unlikely as substance obsolete
Source: US EPA
Occupational
May be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, by inhalation and through the intact skin
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.0002 mg l⁻¹
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
UK EA QS database 2018
-
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause mental confusion and convulsions
IARC Group 2B carcinogen
Possible liver & kidney toxicant
Endocrine issues - Competitive binding to androgen receptors
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Prevent generation of mists
Flammable
Corrosive to some metals
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H312, H351
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 3: R40
Xn - Harmful: R21/22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S36/37, S60, S61
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
2996
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
chlordane
French
chlordane
German
Chlordan
Danish
chlordane
Italian
clordano
Spanish
clordano
Greek
chlordane
Polish
chlordan
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
chloordaan

Record last updated: 22/12/2020
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242