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1,2-dibromoethane
Last updated: 24/12/2020
(Also known as: EDB; glycol bromide; sym-dibromide; ethylene dibromide; glycol dibromide)

GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A largely obsolete post-harvest pesticide, often used in mixtures, to control termites and other insect pests
Example pests controlled
Termites; Ants; Japanese and other beetles; Moths; Nematodes; Wireworms
Example applications
Fruit including citrus, tropical fruit; Vegetables; Cereals
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Obsolete
Introduction & key dates
-
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired, banned
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired, banned
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₂H₄Br₂
Canonical SMILES
C(CBr)Br
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
PAAZPARNPHGIKF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C2H4Br2/c3-1-2-4/h1-2H2
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Fumigant
Substance group
Unclassified
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Toxin attacking central nervous system
CAS RN
106-93-4
EC number
203-444-5
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
042002
PubChem CID
7839
CLP index number
602-010-00-6
Molecular mass
187.86
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
ethylene dibromide
CAS name
1,2-dibromoethane
Other status information
Chemical subject to PIC regulations; Potential groundwater contaminant; POP
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not known
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Colourless liquid
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Bromofume
  • Dowfume
  • Iscobrome
  • Soilbrom
  • Soilfume
Example products using this active
  • United Phosphorous Ltd
  • Dow
Formulation and application details
Fumigant
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
4150
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
at 25 °C
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
Miscible
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
Miscible
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Diethyl ether
-
Melting point (°C)
9.8
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Boiling point (°C)
131
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
132
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
9.12 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P
1.96
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
2.17
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.49 X 1006
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
at 25 °C
Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
6.59 X 1009
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
at 25 °C
Volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
100
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
70
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
7000
CA1 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
1 = Estimated data with little or no verification
Very persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
General literature states DT₅₀ 1.5 to 18 weeks (CA3); In field - small proportion of residues very persistent - 19 years (CA3)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Moderately mobile
Koc
87
Notes and range
Koc range 14-160 mL g⁻¹; Other sources: 66 mL g⁻¹ (P4)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
7.92 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
4.51 X 1001 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Moderately mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
Low risk
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Based on LogP < 3
Low risk
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
108
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 130
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Coturnix japonica
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 18
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Lepomis macrochirus
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 5.81
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oryzias latipes 28 day
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 119
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (Class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
108
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
300
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Risk of exposure from agricultural sources is negligible
Possible risk in some countries via consumption of contaminated drinking water
Occupational
May be absorped through inhalation, ingestion, or the skin
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.0004 mg l⁻¹
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
UK EA QS database 2018
-
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
?Possibly, status not identified
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Possible liver and kidney toxicant
May cause testicular damage and antispermatogenic effects
High does may lead to death
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Corrosive
IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1
CLP classification 2013
Health: H301, H311, H315, H319, H331, H335, H350
Environment: H411
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 2: R45
T - Toxic: R23, R24, R25
Xi - Irritant: R36, R37, R38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R51, R53
EC Safety Classification
S45, S53, S61
WHO Classification
O (Obsolete substance)
UN Number
Usually 1605
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group I (great danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
1,2-dibromoethane
French
dibromure d'ethylene
German
1,2-Dibromaethan
Danish
-
Italian
1,2-dibromoetano
Spanish
-
Greek
-
Polish
dwubromoetan
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
1,2-dibroomethaan

Record last updated: 24/12/2020
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242