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PhD Oportunity with Syngenta & the University of Hertfordshire

chlorothalonil (Ref: DS 2787)
** TPN ** tetrachloroisophthalonitrile ** m-TCPN ** HSR002825 ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Chlorothalonil is a broad spectrum fungicide that is approved for use in the EU and is widely used. It has a low aqueous solubility, is volatile and would not be expected to leach to groundwater. It is slightly mobile. It tends not to be persistent in soil systems but may be persistent in water. It has a low mammalian toxicity but there is some concern regarding its bioaccumulation potential. It is a recognised irritant. Chlorothalonil is moderately toxic to birds, honeybees and earthworms but considered to be more toxic to aquatic organisms.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for chlorothalonil

Description: A fungicide used to control a wide range of diseases on a broad range of crops. Also used as a wood preservative.

Example pests controlled: Rust; purple spot; Leaf blight; Anthracnose; Downy mildew; Ring spot; Stalk rot; Botrytis rot; Pod & stem blight

Example applications: Cereals; Vegetables including asparagus, beans, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, carrot, onions, celery, curcubits; Corn for seed; Fruit including cranberries, melon; Mushrooms; Peanuts; Potatoes

Efficacy & activity: Can be product specific but generally - Wheat/Mildew=Low; Wheat/Septori tritici=High; Barley/Rhynchosporium=Low; Barley/Ramularia=Moderate

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1964, first first reported

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Netherlands/Belgium
Date inclusion expires 31/10/2018

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Fungicide
Substance group Chloronitrile
Minimum active substance purity 985 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - Hexachlorobenzene 0.04 g/kg; Decachlorobiphenyl 0.03 g/kg
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Non-systemic, broad-spectrum, foliar action with some protectant properties. Acts by preventing spore germination and zoospore motility. Multi-site activity.
CAS RN 1897-45-6
EC number 217-588-1
CIPAC number 288
US EPA chemical code 081901
Chiral molecule No
Chemical formula C8Cl4N2
SMILES Clc1c(C#N)c(Cl)c(C#N)c(Cl)c1Cl
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) CRQQGFGUEAVUIL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C8Cl4N2/c9-5-3(1-13)6(10)8(12)7(11)4(5)2-14
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 265.91
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) 2,4,5,6-tetrachlorobenzene-1,3-dicarbonitrile
IUPAC name tetrachloroisophthalonitrile
CAS name 2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile
Other status information -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) M5
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White crystals
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • AgriGuard
  • Certis
  • DuPont
  • Nufarm
  • Scotts
  • Syngenta
  • Teliton
  • Walabi
Example products using this active
  • Alto Elite
  • Amistar Opti
  • Bravo 500
  • Cherokee
  • Credo
  • Folio
  • Joules
  • Merlin
  • Midas
  • Repulse
UK LERAP status Buffer probably required in UK - see product label
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as a soluble concentrate that is mixed with water and applied as a foliar spray.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for chlorothalonil

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 0.81 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 13800 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
18000 A5 - Acetone -
1700 A5 - Methanol -
74400 A5 - Xylene -
Melting point (oC) 252.1 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) 347 A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 347 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 8.71 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P 2.94 A5 Moderate
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.74 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 0.076 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 2.50 X 10-02 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.86 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.11 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 232nm = 62390, 312nm = 1116, 324nm = 1507 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability Not readily biodegradable
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 9.2 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 9.2 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 44 A5 Moderately persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 51.6 A4 -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint 4.61 A5 -
Note EU dossier RAR 2016: lab studies DT50 range 0.44-31.6 days, Soils=18; DT90 values from previous regulatory dossier; field studies DT50 range 18-77 days; Other sources: 30 days (DW3)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value 5.5 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 3.0-12.5 days, 8 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=11
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 5.0 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 1.7-12.7 days, 11 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=20
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 0.72 A4 Fast
Note In sterile buffer
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 29.6 A4 - @ 50 degC Non-persistent
Note Stable pH 4 to pH 7
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 1.87 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 1.51 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd 42.99 A5 Slightly mobile
Koc 2632
Notes and range EU dossier RAR 2016; Kd range 7.7-153 mL/g, Koc range 300-6154 mL/g, Soils=9
Freundlich Kf 27,2 A5 Slightly mobile
Kfoc 1288
1/n 0.90
Notes and range EU RAR 2016: Kf range 3.0-74.1 mL/g, Kfoc range 330-7000 mL/g, 1/n range 0.83-0.95, Soils=12; Literature data: Kf range 96.3-1357 mL/g, Kfoc range 13462-52585 mL/g, 1/n range 0.48-0.69, Soils=8
pH sensitivity None

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
4-hydroxy-2,5,6-trichloroisophtalonitrile (Ref: R182281) This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.322   Major fraction, Relevant
2-amido-3,5,6-trichlo-4-cyanobenzenesulphonic acid (Ref: R417888) This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.152   Major fraction, Relevant
3-carbamyl-2,4,5-trichlorobenzoic acid (Ref: R611965) This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.132   Major fraction, Relevant
4-amido-2,5-dichloro-6-cyano benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid (Ref: R419492) This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.124   Major fraction, Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
2,5 dichloro-4,6 dicyano-benzene-1,3 disulfonic acid
(Ref: R418503)
- Soil; Crop Soil=0.06 -
,4-bis-amido-3,5,6-trichlorobenzenesulfonate
(Ref: R471811)
- Soil; Crop Soil=0.119 -
2,4,5-trichloro-3-cyano benzamid
(Ref: R611966)
Compound 5 Soil; Rat Soil=0.081 -
(Ref: R611967) - Soil; Rat Soil=0.132 -
(Ref: R611968) - Soil 0.065 -
(Ref: R613636) - Soil 0.104 -
2-acetamido-3-[3-(2-acetamido-3-hydroxy-3-oxopropyl)sulfanyl-2,5-dichloro-4,6-dicyano-phenyl]sulfanylpropanoic acid
(Ref: R613823)
- Rat - -
2-acetamido-3-[3,5-bis[(2-acetamido-3-hydroxy-3-oxo-propyl)sulfanyl]-4-chloro-2,6-dicyano-phenyl] sulfanylpropanoic acid
(Ref: R613825)
- Rat - -
2,4,5-trichloro-3-cyano-6-hydroxy-benxamide
(Ref: SYN507900)
SDS66882 Soil 0.058 -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for chlorothalonil

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 100 A5 Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) 5 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 3 B4 High
(ppm diet) 10 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2000 A5 Coturnix japonica Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 5200 mg kg feed-1 A5 Coturnix japonica -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.017 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.003 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.054 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.009 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.061 A5 Chironomus riparius High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.04 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.29 C4 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants > 4.2 A5 Avena sativa, Allium cepa
Vegetative vigour, ER50
as kg product/ha, product chlorothalonil 75 WG
-
> 8000 A5 maize, onion, oat, radish
Emergence, Er50
as mL/product/ha, product chlorothalonil 500 SC
-
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.21 L2 Raphidocelis subcapitata Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 0.033 A5 Selenastrum capricornutum Moderate
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 101 A5 Apis mellifera Low
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 63 A5 Apis mellifera Moderate
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 268.5 A4 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 50.0 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 18750 48 hour
L3 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 Harmful Dose: 900 g ha-1
AA3 Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 4.8 mg kg-1 soil
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for chlorothalonil

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 5000 A5 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.1 A5 Rat, 4 hr (nose only) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.015 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.6 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.009 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 0.02-1.2 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Low risk for prescribed patetrn of use
Occupational PPE/PPC recommended/advised
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

General human health issues May cause contact dermatitis
IARC group 2B carcinogen; USEPA - probable human carcinogen, formation of tumours shown to form in mice following ingestion
Endocrine issues - Activation of androgen-sensitive cells proliferation

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Avoid generating spray mists/dust
Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013 Health: H317, H318, H330, H335, H351
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Carcinogen category 3: R40
T+ - Very toxic: R26
Xn - Harmful: R43, R41
Xi - Irritant: R37
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S1/2, S28, S36/37/39, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
US EPA Classification (formulation) II - Warning - Moderately toxic
UN Number Usually 3082
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for chlorothalonil

Language Name
English chlorothalonil
French chlorothalonil
German Chlorthalonil
Danish chlorothalonil
Italian clorotalonil
Spanish clorotalonil
Greek chlorothalonil
Slovenian klortalonil
Polish chlorotalonil
Swedish -
Hungarian chlotalonil
Dutch chloorthalonil

Record last updated: Wednesday 15 November 2017
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk