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chlorothalonil (Ref: DS 2787)
** TPN ** tetrachloroisophthalonitrile ** m-TCPN ** HSR002825 ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Chlorothalonil is a broad spectrum fungicide that is approved for use in the EU and is widely used. It has a low aqueous solubility, is non-volatile and would not be expected to leach to groundwater. It is slightly mobile. It tends not to be persistent in soil systems but may be persistent in water. It has a low mammalian toxicity but there is some concern regarding its bioaccumulation potential. It is a recognised irritant. Chlorothalonil is moderately toxic to birds, honeybees and earthworms but considered to be more toxic to aquatic organisms.

GENERAL INFORMATION
for chlorothalonil

Description: A fungicide used to control a wide range of diseases on a broad range of crops. Also used as a wood preservative.

Introduction: 1964, first first reported

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Netherlands
Date inclusion expires 28/02/2016

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries:

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also registered in: Australia, USA

General status:
Pesticide type Fungicide
Substance group Chloronitrile
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Non-systemic, broad-spectrum, foliar action with some protectant properties. Acts by preventing spore germination and zoospore motility
CAS RN 1897-45-6
EC number 217-588-1
CIPAC number 288
US EPA chemical code 081901
Chiral molecule No
Chemical formula C8Cl4N2
SMILES Clc1c(C#N)c(Cl)c(C#N)c(Cl)c1Cl
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1/C8Cl4N2/c9-5-3(1-13)6(10)8(12)7(11)4(5)2-14
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 265.91
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) 2,4,5,6-tetrachlorobenzene-1,3-dicarbonitrile
IUPAC name tetrachloroisophthalonitrile
CAS name 2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile
Other status information -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) M5
Physical state White crystals
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Value
Example manufacturers of products using this active
  • AgriGuard
  • Certis
  • DuPont
  • Nufarm
  • Scotts
  • Syngenta
  • Teliton
  • Walabi
Example products using this active
  • Alto Elite
  • Amistar Opti
  • Bravo 500
  • Cherokee
  • Credo
  • Folio
  • Joules
  • Merlin
  • Midas
  • Repulse
UK LERAP status LERAP Category B, Broadcast Air Assisted LERAP
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as a soluble concentrate that is mixed with water and applied as a spray.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for chlorothalonil

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 0.81 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 13800 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
20600 C4 - Acetone -
1360 A5 - Methanol -
74400 A5 - Xylene -
Melting point (oC) 252.1 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) 350 A5 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 8.71 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P 2.94 A5 Moderate
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.74 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 0.076 A5 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 2.50 X 10-02 A5 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) 1.36 X 10-05 K3 Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index 0.70 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Value 1.08 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 232nm = 62390, 312nm = 1116, 324nm = 1507 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 22 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 15.7 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 44 A5 Moderately persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 51.6 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
Note EU dossier lab studies DT50 range 0.3-87 days, DT90 range 1.0-287 days; field studies DT50 range 18-77 days; Other sources: 30 days (DW3)
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 65 A4 Stable
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 Very persistent
Note Stable pH 5 to pH 7, DT50 16-38 days at pH 9, 20 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 0.1 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 0.1 B5 Fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Linear Kd - A4 Slightly mobile
Koc 850
Notes and range EU dossier Koc range 300-7000 mL/g; Other data source: 1380 mL/g (DW3)
Freundlich Kf 534 R4 Slightly mobile
Kfoc 3032
1/n 0.64
Notes and range Literature data: Study 1 - Kf range 300-700 mL/g, Kfoc range 13462-35714 mL/g, Soils=3; Study 2 - Kf range 96.3-1357 mL/g, Kfoc range 13462-52585 mL/g, 1/n range 0.45-0.69, Soils=5
pH sensitivity -

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 91/414 relevancy
4-hydroxy-2,5,6-trichloroisophtalonitrile (Ref: SDS-3701) Soil   0.320   Major fraction, Relevant
2-amido-3,5,6-trichlo-4-cyanobenzenesulphonic acid (Ref: R417888) Soil   0.200   Major fraction, Relevant
3-carbamyl-2,4,5-trichlorobenzoic acid (Ref: SDS 46851) Soil   0.132   Major fraction, Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
- R471811; Compound 13 Soil 0.110 -
- R419492 Soil 0.124 -
(Ref: SDS-19221) - Soil 0.100 -
(Ref: SDS-46851)
Note: Rat LD50 (oral) >5000
R611965 Soil; Groundwater; Rat (Urinary) 0.132 -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for chlorothalonil

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor BCF 100 A5 Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) 5 -
Bioaccumulation potential - Calculated Low
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 3 B4 High
(ppm diet) 10 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2000 A5 Coturnix japonica Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 5200 mg kg feed-1 A5 Coturnix japonica -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.038 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.003 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.084 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.009 A5 Daphnia magna -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.061 A5 Chironomus riparius High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.04 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.29 C4 Lemna gibba Moderate
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.21 L2 Raphidocelis subcapitata Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 0.033 A5 Selenastrum capricornutum Moderate
Honeybees - Acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 40 A5 Oral Moderate
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 268.5 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 25.0 A5 Eisenia foetida, 5% OM Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 18750 48 hour
L3 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
Harmless at 1 kg ha-1
Harmless at 0.1 kg ha-1
Harmless at 0.01 kg ha-1
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 Harmful Dose: 900 g ha-1
AA3 Typhlodromus pyri
Harmful
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 4.8 mg kg-1 soil
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for chlorothalonil

General:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.1 A5 Rat, 4 hr -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.015 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.6 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.009 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 0.02-1.2 A5 concentration dependant -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational -
Examples of European MRLs (mg kg-1) Value Celery and soft fruit: 10.0; Broccoli, wine grapes, cabbage and cauliflower: 3.0; Peas (with pods): 2.0; Cucumber, melons (not watermelons), pumpkins, winter squash, carrots, pomes, apricots, nectarines, peaches and table grapes: 1.0; Brussel spouts, onions and garlic: 0.5; Peas (edible part): 0.3; Barley, oat, rye and wheat grains: 0.1; Beans (edible part): 0.05; Other cereal grains, other fruit and other veg: 0.01
Note Current May 2007.
For the EU pesticides database click here
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Eye irritant

-

General human health issues Cases of contact dermatitis have been reported
Possible sensitier

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data

Handling issues:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
General Avoid generating spray mists/dust
Not explosive
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013 -
EC Risk Classification Carcinogen category 3: R40
T+ - Very toxic: R26
Xn - Harmful: R43, R41
Xi - Irritant: R37
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification S1/2, S28, S36/37/39, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
US EPA Classification (formulation) II - Warning - Moderately toxic
UN Number Usually 3082
Waste disposal & packaging Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for chlorothalonil

Language Name
English chlorothalonil
French chlorothalonil
German Chlorthalonil
Danish chlorothalonil
Italian clorotalonil
Spanish clorotalonil
Greek chlorothalonil
Slovenian klortalonil
Polish chlorotalonil
Swedish -
Hungarian chlotalonil
Dutch chloorthalonil

Record last updated: Monday 30 June 2014
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk