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PhD Oportunity with Syngenta & the University of Hertfordshire

asulam (Ref: M and B 9057)
** MB 9057 ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Asulam is a carbamate herbicide that is not approved for use in the EU. It is highly soluble in water, relatively volatile with a low risk of leaching to groundwater. It is not persistent in soils but may be persistent in water especially under dark conditions. Although it is not highly toxic there is a risk of bioaccumulation. It is a skin, eye and respiratory system irritant and may cause undesirable effects on reproduction. It is moderately toxic to birds, most aquatic organisms, honeybees and earthworms.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for asulam

Description: A translocated carbamate herbicide for control of stubborn weeds which is usually used as the sodium or potassium salt.

Example pests controlled: Docks; Bracken

Example applications: Fruit including apples, pears, plums, cherries, blackcurrants; Hops; Grazing land; Amenity grassland; Moorland

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1965

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur UK
Date inclusion expires Withdrawn

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Herbicide
Substance group Carbamate
Minimum active substance purity >800 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - Methanol
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Selective system action, absorbed by leaves, shoots and roots. Inhibition of dihydropterate synthase causing slow chlorosis.
CAS RN 3337-71-1
EC number 222-077-1
CIPAC number 240
US EPA chemical code 106901
Chiral molecule No
Chemical formula C8H10N2O4S
SMILES c1(S(NC(OC)=O)(=O)=O)ccc(N)cc1
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) VGPYEHKOIGNJKV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C8H10N2O4S/c1-14-8(11)10-15(12,13)7-4-2-6(9)3-5-7/h2-5H,9H2,1H3,(H,10,11)
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 230.24
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) methyl (4-aminobenzenesulfonyl)carbamate
IUPAC name methyl sulfanilylcarbamate
CAS name methyl [(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]carbamate
Other status information Chemical subject to PIC regulations. Emergency approval for bracken control is sometimes given.
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) I
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) 18
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Colourless crystals
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Bayer CropScience
  • Dow AgroSciences
  • AgriGuard
  • GreenCrop
  • May & Baker
Example products using this active
  • Asulox F
  • Asulox 40
  • Jonnix
  • Formule 1
UK LERAP status None (may vary with mixtures)
Formulation and application details Usually formulated as the sodium salt.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for asulam

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 962000 A5 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 1100 A4 - Acetone @ 25 DegC -
98.0 A5 - Xylene -
500 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
300 A5 - n-Octanol -
Melting point (oC) 230 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 230 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.41 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P 0.15 A5 - @ 25 DegC Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity - - -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 1.29 A5 -
Note: pKa(2) = 4.68
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 5.0 X 10-04 A3 - @ 45 DegC Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 1.31 X 10-10 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 1.36 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 3.00 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 203nm = 221771, 293nm = 27501 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 71.5 A5 -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 3.2 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 3.2 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 9 R3 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 15.1 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU Dossier DT50 range 2.1-4.2 days, DT90 range 7.0-30.9 days; General literature states DT50 6-14 days; Other literature DT50 range 9-39 days (R3)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A3 -
Note Degradation very slow
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 71.9 A5 Moderately fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 0.8 A5 Mobile
Kfoc 20
1/n 0.75
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 0.1-2.6, Kfoc range 15.4-149.7 mL/g, 1/n range 0.68-0.82, Soils=6
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
4-aminobenzenesulphonamide This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.139   Major fraction, Not relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
acetylsulphanilamide - Animal (Urine) - -
acetyl-asulam - Animal (Urine) - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for asulam

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) Low risk A5 Based on LogP < 3 Low potential
CT50 (days) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 1827 A5 Colinus virginianus Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 100000 mg kg feed-1 A4 Anas platyrhynchos -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 91.3 A5 Lepomis macrochirus Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) > 119.1 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 57.9 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 6.4 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 91.3 A5 Chironomus riparius Low
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.27 A5 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Low
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 123.7 A5 Low
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 1000 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 7.57 A5 Typhlodromus pyri -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 3.09 A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: -26% effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 160mg kg-1 soil
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for asulam

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 5.46 A5, 4 hr (whole body) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.36 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 1.0 A5 1yr Dog, SF=100 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.46 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 0.5-3.0 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational -
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

-

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues Kidney, thyroid and blood toxicant
USEPA - some evidence to suggest human carcinogen

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013 -
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R43
N - Dangerous for the environment: R52
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases -
WHO Classification III - Slightly hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) IV - Caution - Not acutely toxic
UN Number Usually 3082
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for asulam

Language Name
English asulam
French asulame
German Asulam
Danish asulam
Italian asulame
Spanish asulam
Greek -
Slovenian -
Polish asulam
Swedish -
Hungarian aszulam
Dutch asulam

Record last updated: Monday 13 November 2017
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk