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dichlobenil (Ref: H 133)
** dichlorbenil ** DCBN ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Dichlobenil is a herbicide that was largely used for general annual and perennial weed control in non-copped. It is no longer approved for use within the EU. It has low solubility, is not highly volatle and has potential to leach into groundwater. It is moderately persistent in soils and very persistent in water. It is moderately toxic to mammals, aquatic organisms, honeybees and earthworms.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for dichlobenil

Description: A herbicide for woody crops, non-crop uses and in, for example, established orchards. Can also be a pesticide transformation product

Example pests controlled: Canada thistle; Quackgrass; Timothy; Wild rocket; Fescue; Curly Dock; Knapweed; Spurge; Bluegrass; Crabgrass; Pigweed; Knotweed

Example applications: Fruit including apples, cherry, grape, pear, filbert, blueberry, gooseberry, blackberry, raspberry, loganberry; Non-cropped areas including recreational areas, industrial sites, pathways

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1960, first reported

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur UK
Date inclusion expires Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) Not applicable
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism None
Chemical formula C7H3Cl2N
Canonical SMILES C1=CC(=C(C(=C1)Cl)C#N)Cl
Isomeric SMILES N#Cc1c(Cl)cccc1Cl
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) YOYAIZYFCNQIRF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C7H3Cl2N/c8-6-2-1-3-7(9)5(6)4-10/h1-3H
Structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Herbicide, Metabolite
Metabolite Type Soil
Substance group Benzonitrile
Minimum active substance purity 980 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Systemic. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis.
CAS RN 1194-65-6
EC number 214-787-5
CIPAC number 73
US EPA chemical code 027401
PubChem CID 3031
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 172.01
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile
IUPAC name 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile
CAS name 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile
Other status information Potential groundwater contaminant; Chemical subject to PIC regulations
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) L
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) 20
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White crystalline solid
Related substances & organisms -

Can be a metabolite of:
Parent Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
chlorthiamid Soil     -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Certis
  • Luxan
  • Nufarm
  • Scotts
  • Shell
  • Duphar
Example products using this active
  • Dichlobenil Granules
  • Casoron G
  • Osorno
  • Norosac
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Often supplied as granules applied directly to the soil by mechanical spreaders or by hand.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for dichlobenil

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 21.2 A5 - @ 25 DegC Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 86000 A5 - Acetone -
53000 A5 - Xylene -
3700 A5 - Cyclohexane -
151000 A5 - Dichloromethane -
Melting point (oC) 144.5 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 120 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 5.01 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P 2.7 A5 Moderate
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.40 Q2 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.00014 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 1.317 A5 Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 2.25 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 9.41 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 298.9nm = 1985.3; [290nm = 1878.8; [243nm = 5766.9; [236.9nm = 6805.9; [211nm = 38528.8 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 68.5 A5 at 20oC -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 70 K4 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 24.15 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 5.4 A5 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 114.5 A5 -
DT90 (field) 39 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier Lab studies DT50 range 21.98-26.26 days, DT90 range 129-145 days; Field studies DT50 range 3.4-72 days, DT90 range 104.6-122.56 days; Other sources: DT50 1-6 months (general literature); 60 days (DW4)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 15.1 A5 Slow
Note Natural light
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable pH 6.8 to 8.3, Rapidly hydrolysed in strong acidic media.
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 142 A5 Slow
Water phase only DT50 (days) 10.5 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - Q3 Moderately mobile
Koc 257
Notes and range Other sources: 45-400 mL/g
Freundlich Kf 6.4 A5 Moderately mobile
Kfoc 237
1/n 0.844
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 0.3-10.5 mL/g, Kfoc range 133-322 mL/g, 1/n 0.75-1.02, Soils=5
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
2,6-dichlorobenzamide (Ref: AE C653711) This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.694   Major fraction
2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.660   Major fraction
O-chlorobenzamide (Ref: OBAM) Soil   -   -

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
4-chloro-2(3H)benzoxazolone - Surface water 0.0913 -
2-chlorobenozoic acid - Surface water 0.17 -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for dichlobenil

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 100 A5 Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) 1.0 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - L2 Rat, 2 year -
(ppm diet) 50 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 698 A5 Colinus virginianus Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 5200 mg kg feed-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 7.2 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.66 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 6.2 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 1.2 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 1.74 F3 Americamysis bahia Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.0279 A5 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 111 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 11 L3 Moderate
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 135 A5 Eisenia foetida, corr Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect 33.8 A5 Folsomia candida, NOEC, 28 day -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for dichlobenil

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.25 L3 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.01 A4 proposed Dog, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.45 A4 proposed Rabbit, SF=100 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.01 A4 proposed Dog, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 1.4 A3 -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Negligible risks for the prescribed applications
Occupational Acceptable risks for the prescribed applications
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Possible liver, kidney, stomach and parathyroid toxicant
May cause dermatitis
Chronic exposure may cause sedation, lose of appetite and severe respiratory problems
USEPA - possible human carcinogen

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302
Environment: H411
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R21
N - Dangerous for the environment: R51, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S36/37, S61
WHO Classification III - Slightly hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number Usually 3077
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for dichlobenil

Language Name
English dichlobenil
French dichlobenil
German Dichlobenil
Danish diclobenil
Italian diclobenil
Spanish diclobenil
Greek dichlobenil
Slovenian diklobenil
Polish dichlobenyl
Swedish -
Hungarian dichlobenil
Dutch dichlobenil

Record last updated: Tuesday 22 May 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk