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dithianon (Ref: BAS 216F)
** IT 931 ** CME 107 ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for dithianon

Description: A dicarbonitrile fungicide for control of scab and other foliar diseases excluding powdery mildew

Example pests controlled: Scab (reduction); Downy mildew

Example applications: Apples; Pears; Grapes (table & wine); Blackcurrants

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: circa 1965

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Austria/Spain
Date inclusion expires 31/05/2021
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C14H4N2O2S2
Canonical SMILES C1=CC=C2C(=C1)C(=O)C3=C(C2=O)SC(=C(S3)C#N)C#N
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) PYZSVQVRHDXQSL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C14H4N2O2S2/c15-5-9-10(6-16)20-14-12(18)8-4-2-1-3-7(8)11(17)13(14)19-9/h1-4H
Structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Fungicide
Substance group Quinone
Minimum active substance purity 930 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Protectant with some curative activity. Multi-site activity.
CAS RN 3347-22-6
EC number 222-098-6
CIPAC number 153
US EPA chemical code 099201
PubChem CID 18771
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 296.32
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) 5,10-dioxo-5,10-dihydronaphtho[2,3-b][1,4]dithiine-2,3-dicarbonitrile
IUPAC name 5,10-dihydro-5,10-dioxonaphtho[2,3-b]-1,4-dithiine-2,3-dicarbonitrile
CAS name 5,10-dihydro-5,10-dioxonaphtho(2,3-b)-1,4-dithiin-2,3-dicarbonitrile
Other status information Marine pollutant; PAN listed Highly Hazardous Chemical
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) M9
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Dark brown fibrous crystals
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • BASF
  • Celamerck
Example products using this active
  • Dithianon Flowable
  • Dithianon WG
  • Delan 70WG
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Often supplied as a soluble concentrate or wettable granules that are mixed with water and applied as a spray.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for dithianon

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 0.22 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 14700 A5 - Toluene -
22200 A5 - Acetone -
10600 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
8.77 A5 - Hexane -
Melting point (oC) 215 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) - - -
Degradation point (oC) 222 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.58 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P 3.2 A4 - @ pH 2.0 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.58 L3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 1.0 X 10-07 A3 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 1.347 X 10-07 A4 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.45 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 8.09 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 In CH3CN: 199nm = 35932, 233nm = 20542, 330nm = 5083, 290.5nm = 6535; [pH 1.3: 199nm = 18102, 237nm = 15110, 342nm = 4489, 290.5nm = 5100; [pH 6.9: 199nm = 22380, 250nm = 15110, 350nm = 7204, 290.5nm = 8724 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 72.7 A5 at 20oC -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 10.5 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 10.5 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 35 Y4 Moderately persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 69.2 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier lab studies DT50 range 2.6-33.3 days, DT90 range 8.5-135 days
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value 18.3 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 14.9-21.4 days, fruit from 3 field crops, n=3
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 0.01 A5 Fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 0.6 A5 Non-persistent
Note pH sensitive: DT50 10.7 days at pH 5, 9.8 minutes at pH 9 all at 20 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 0.05 A4 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 0.05 A4 Fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd 86.4 - Slightly mobile
Koc 3627
Notes and range EU dossier Kd range 9-157 mL/g, Koc range 1167-6004 mL/g, Soils=5
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity Not stable under wet conditions pH > 4

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone dithianon metabolite D33 Rat (Faeces) - -
phthalic acid
Note: Not genotoxic
- Soil (Photolysis, Anaerobic); Plant - -
phthadialdehdye - Water (Hydrolysis, Photolysis) - -
1,2-benzenedimethanol - Water (Hydrolysis, Photolysis) - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
(Ref: CL 1017911) - Water (Hydrolysis) - -
(Ref: CL 1025) dithianon metabolite D2 Soil (Anaerobic) - -
(Ref: CL 153880) dithianon metabolite D5 Soil (Anaerobic) 0.046 -
(Ref: CL 231509) - Plant - -
4,9-dioxo-4,9-dihydronaphtho(2,3-b)thiophene-2,3-dicarbonitrile
(Ref: CL 902198)
dithianon metabolite D8 a = Rat (Faeces); b = Soil (Aerobic) b=0.039 -
(Ref: CL 902200) dithianon metabolite D15 Soil (Anaerobic); Plant - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for dithianon

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 27 A5 Whole fish Low potential
CT50 (days) 1 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 300 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - L2 Rat, 2 year -
(ppm diet) 20 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 309 A5 Colinus virginianus Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 1198.5 mg kg bw-1 day-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.07 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.02 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.26 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.05 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 0.5 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) > 0.125 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.09 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 0.025 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Moderate
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Low
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 25.4 A5 Moderate
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 578 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 22.3 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 6000 >, as g product
ha (Delan 70 WG: Conc 700 g/L)
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 960 as g product
ha (Delan 70 WG: Conc 700 g/L)
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 14 kg ha-1, 28 days
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 0.004 A5 Fish -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for dithianon

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 300 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.31 A5 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.01 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.12 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.0135 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 0.26-3.1 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public No unacceptable risks to bystanders identified
Occupational Possible risk to operators identified even with PPE
Minimal risk to other workers with PPE
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) 0.1 EU Dir 89/778/EC limit; A5 -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Toxic
Possible liver and kidney toxicant
May cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea if ingested
USEPA - possible human carcinogen

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1 or 9
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Carcinogen category 3: R40
T - Toxic: R23
Xn - Harmful: R22, R41, R43
Xi - Irritant: R66
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S13, S36/37/39, S45
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number Variable with product, usually 3077 or 3082
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for dithianon

Language Name
English dithianon
French dithianon
German Dithianon
Danish dithianon
Italian ditianon
Spanish ditianona
Greek dithianon
Slovenian ditianon
Polish ditianon
Swedish ditianon
Hungarian ditianon
Dutch dithianon

Record last updated: Thursday 23 August 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk