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DNOC (Ref: ENT 154)
Last updated: 18/01/2021
(Also known as: dinitrosol; dinitrol; 4,6-dinitro-O-cresol)

GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A multi-use substance used to control insect and weed pests in agricultural crops.
Example pests controlled
Aphids; Suckers; Tortrix & winder moths; Thrips; Locusts; Spider mites; Annual broad-leaved weeds
Example applications
Cereals; Potatoes; Dormant fruit trees
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Obsolete
Introduction & key dates
1892
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
France
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Africa
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₇H₆N₂O₅
Canonical SMILES
CC1=CC(=CC(=C1O)[N+](=O)[O-])[N+](=O)[O-]
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
ZXVONLUNISGICL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C7H6N2O5/c1-4-2-5(8(11)12)3-6(7(4)10)9(13)14/h2-3,10H,1H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide, Insecticide, Acaricide, Fungicide
Substance group
Dinitrophenol
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Non-systemic, with contact and stomach action. Cell membrane disruption. Uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation via disruption of proton gradient.
CAS RN
534-52-1
EC number
208-601-1
CIPAC number
19
US EPA chemical code
037507
PubChem CID
10800
Molecular mass
198.13
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol
IUPAC name
4,6-dinitro-o-cresol
CAS name
2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol
Other status information
Chemical subject to PIC regulations; Marine Pollutant; Rotterdam Convention (Class Ib); Strongly phytotoxic
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
M
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
24
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
13
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
None identified
Physical state
Yellow to green coloured crystals
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Sinox
  • Trifocide
  • Trifrina
  • Detal
  • Dekrysil
  • Lipan
  • Nitrador
Example products using this active
  • Cerexagri Inc.
  • Blue Spruce
  • AH Marks
  • Pennwalt Holland
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as soluble flakes, flowable concentrates and wettable powders
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
13000
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
251000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Toluene
-
58400
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Methanol
-
4030
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Hexane
-
514000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
Melting point (°C)
89
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
196
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.45 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.39
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.58
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
4.48
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
8.7
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Moderately volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.42 X 10-01
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
8.5
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
20
DW4 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
General literature DT₅₀ range 4-13 days (R3)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
10
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately fast
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
83
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
25
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slow
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
H3 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately mobile
Koc
300
Notes and range
Other sources: 408 mL g⁻¹ (DW3)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
1.98 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
6.26 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Low Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Moderately mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
40
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Estimated
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
25
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
3977
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Coturnix japonica
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.23
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Lepomis macrochirus
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 1.11
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Pimephales promelas
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 1.1
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
> 3.4
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Scenedesmus subspicatus
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
204
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Low
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
16.0
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
25
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
187
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Main risk of exposure is thought to be from residues on treated crops
Occupational
Operator exposure is a concern even with PPE/PPC
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E1 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
1 = Positive
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Mutagenic potential
Very toxic by inhalation, skin contact and ingestion
Easily absorbed through the skin
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Combustable
Explosive when dry
IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1
CLP classification 2013
Health: H300, H310, H315, H317, H318, H330, H341
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Mutagenic category 3: R68
T+ - Very toxic: R26/27/28
Xn - Harmful: R43, R41
Xi - Irritant: R38
H - Handling risks: R44
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S1/2, S36/37, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification
Ib (Highly hazardous / Highly hazardous)
UN Number
2779
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group II (medium danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
DNOC
French
DNOC
German
DNOC
Danish
DNOC
Italian
DNOC
Spanish
DNOC
Greek
DNOC
Polish
DNOC
Swedish
DNOC
Hungarian
DNOC
Dutch
DNOC

Record last updated: 18/01/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242