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Amitraz (Ref: ENT 27967)
Last updated: 26/11/2019
(Also known as: amitraze; amitrazum ; BTS-27419; BAAM; U-36059)

SUMMARY
Amitraz is an amidine acaricide and insecticide that is currently not approved for use in the EU but is still used in some parts of the world. It is volatile, almost insoluble in water and, based on its chemical properties, is only slightly mobile with a low potential for leaching to groundwater. It is not persistent in soil systems, degradation being very rapid and would also not be expected to persistent in surface water under normal conditions. Amitraz has a moderate mammalian toxicity and there is some concern regarding its potential for bioaccumulation. It is considered to be a neurotoxin. Amitraz has a high to moderate toxicity to most terrestrial and aquatic species, the main exception being algae for which amitraz has a low level of toxicity.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An amidine acaricide and insecticide for use in top fruit, ornamentals and some vegetables. Also has veterinary treatment applications.
Example pests controlled
Bollworm; Budworm; Red spider mites; Leaf miners; Scale insects; Aphids; Ticks; Psyllids; Varroa mite
Example applications
Fruit including apples, pears and plums; Ornamentals; Some vegetables; Cotton; Livestock; Bees
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
circa 1972
UK regulatory status
UK approval status
Not approved
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 91/414 Status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Austria
Date inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) or known to be used (#) in the following EU-27 Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Australia, USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₉H₂₃N₃
Canonical SMILES
CC1=CC(=C(C=C1)N=CN(C)C=NC2=C(C=C(C=C2)C)C)C
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
QXAITBQSYVNQDR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C19H23N3/c1-14-6-8-18(16(3)10-14)20-12-22(5)13-21-19-9-7-15(2)11-17(19)4/h6-13H,1-5H3/b20-12+,21-13+
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
amitraz -
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Acaricide, Veterinary substance
Substance group
Amidine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Non-systemic having contact and respiratory action. Octopaminergic (nervous system) agonist.
CAS RN
33089-61-1
EC number
251-375-4
CIPAC number
362
US EPA chemical code
106201
PubChem CID
36324
Molecular mass
293.41
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
N'-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-{[(2,4-dimethylphenyl)imino]methyl}-N-methylmethanimidamide
IUPAC name
N,N'-[(methylimino)dimethylidyne]di-2,4-xylidine
CAS name
N'-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-[[(2,4-dimethylphenyl)imino]methyl]-N-methylmethanimidamide
Other status information
Cannot be used on horses
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
19
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Panonychus citri, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, Tetranychus urticae, Boophilus microplus, Cacopsylla pyri
Physical state
Straw coloured crystalline solid
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Mitac WP
  • Triazid
  • Amipaz
  • Zamir
Example products using this active
  • FCC
  • Agropharm
  • Kingtai Chemicals
  • Makhteshim
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as emulsifiable concentrates or wettable powders for crop use and solutions for livestock topical administration
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.1
W4 W = French database provided by ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
87
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
3.16 X 1005 Calculated -
Log P
5.5
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.13
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
9.8
DW4 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
4 = Verified data
-
Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C
0.051
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C
1.06
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index
0.00 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
1.92 X 10-04 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Low Calculated -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
0.2
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
0.2
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
1
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Literature DT₅₀ studies range 0.1-2 days
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
6.2
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 5.0-7.3 days, 2 field crops, various matrices, n=2
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
-
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Stable in UV light
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
1
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
Note
pH sensitive: DT₅₀ 2hrs at pH 5, 1.1 days at pH 9, rapid hydrolysis
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
W3 W = French database provided by ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slightly mobile
Koc
1000
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
semiamitraz hydrochloride (Ref: BTS-27271)
Soil - Major
2,4-dimethylformanilide (Ref: BTS 27919)
Soil - Minor
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
2,4-dimethylaniline - Soil (Aerobic) - -
2,4-dimethylformanilide - Soil (Hydrolysis) - -
N'-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-methyl-methanimidamide - Soil (Aerobic) - -
2,4-dimethylbenzenamine - Soil (Aerobic) - -
N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)formamide - Soil (Anaerobic) - -
2,4-dimethylbenzenamine - Soil (Anaerobic) - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
1838
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
800
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat 2 year
-
(ppm diet)
50 -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
788
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.74
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.00353
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Pimephales promelas
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.035
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.002
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna LOEC
High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
4.7
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Americamysis bahia
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
12
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Raphidocelis subcapitata
Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
50
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmful [Dose: 360 g ha⁻¹]
AA3 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
3 = Unverified data of known source
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Moderately harmful [Dose: 360 g l⁻¹]
AA3 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chrysoperla carnea
-
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
800
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
200
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
65.0
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ = 800 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.003
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.01
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
/ JMPR 1998
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
Occupational exposure may occur through inhalation and dermal contact
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Ingestion may cause slow heart beat, low blood pressure, sedation and low body temperature
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H317, H373
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R22, R43, R48/22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S22, S24, S61, S36/37, S60
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
amitraz
French
amitraze
German
Amitraz
Danish
amitraz
Italian
amitraz
Spanish
amitraz
Greek
amitraz
Polish
amitraz
Swedish
-
Hungarian
amitraz
Dutch
amitraz

Record last updated: 26/11/2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242