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formaldehyde
** formalin ** methanal ** methyl aldehyde ** methylene oxide ** paraformaldehyde ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for formaldehyde

Description: Used as a disinfectant for soil, equipment, yards etc. Also used as an animal husbandry fungicide. Can also be a pesticide transformation product

Example pests controlled: Most bacteria and fungi

Example applications: Non-cropped areas; Growing media; Equipment; Flower tubers & bulbs

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1888

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur -
Date inclusion expires Expired

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: USA

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Fungicide, Bactericide, Metabolite, Other substance
Metabolite Type Soil, Water
Other constituent type Inert solvent
Substance group Unclassified
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Acts by protein denaturation
CAS RN 50-00-0
EC number 200-001-8
CIPAC number 156
US EPA chemical code 043001
Chiral molecule No
Chemical formula CH2O
SMILES C=O
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) WSFSSNUMVMOOMR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/CH2O/c1-2/h1H2
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 30.03
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name formaldehyde
CAS name formaldehyde
Other status information Listed on USA Toxic Release Inventory; Registered as a UK Commodity Substance
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Gas
Related substances & organisms -

Can be a metabolite of:
Parent Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 91/414 relevancy Click here for further information on 91/414 relevancy
daminozide Soil   0.210   Major fraction, Not relevant
bronopol Soil     Not relevant
trioxymethylene Acid media     Major fraction; Relevant
dazomet Soil   0.205   Major fraction, Relevant

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically -
Example products using this active
  • Formalin Fungicide
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Often used as a dip, drench or spray treatment. May also be used as a fumigant to sterilise animal houses.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for formaldehyde

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 550000 C4 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) Miscible C4 - Acetone -
Melting point (oC) -92 B5 -
Boiling point (oC) -19.2 B5 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) 50 V3 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.24 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P 0.35 V3 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 0.82 L3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 13.27 V3 -
Note: Strong base
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 53300000 C4 Volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 3.41 X 10-02 V3 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) 1.19 X 10-03 Calculated Volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.68 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.64 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 6 Q2 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 1.9 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
Note Other sources: DT50 2-20 days
Plant matrix DT50 (days) Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable P2 -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - A3 Mobile
Koc 37
Notes and range Other sources: DT50 2-20 days
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for formaldehyde

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 0.2 Q2 Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 550 L3 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - Q2 Unknown species -
(ppm diet) 50 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 F4 Anas platyrhynchos Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 1.84 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 0.43 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) > 0.88 A4 Unknown species Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for formaldehyde

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class Low (class I) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 550 L3 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) 270 B5 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 0.6 B5 Rat, 4hr -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits [TWA 8hr: 2ppm], [STEL: 2ppm] - -
Exposure Routes Public Most probable exposure route is via inhalation
Occupational Most probable exposure route is via inhalation - PPE/PPC essential
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues IARC group 1 carcinogen, UK HSE - carcinogen
Severe obstructive tracheobronchitis may result from inhalation causing throat spasms and a build up of fluid in the lungs, leading to death
May cause serious damage of the gastrointestinal tract

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Flammable gas
Reacts explosively with peroxides and performic acid
IMDG Tranport class 3
CLP classification 2013 Health: H301, H311, H314, H317, H331, H341, H350
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Carcinogen category 3: R40
T - Toxic: R23/24/25
Xn - Harmful: R43
H - Handling risks: R34
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S1/2, S26, S36/37/39, S45, S51
WHO Classification FM - Fumigant, not classified
US EPA Classification (formulation) - -
UN Number 1198
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for formaldehyde

Language Name
English formaldehyde
French formaldehyde
German Formaldehyd
Danish formaldehyd
Italian formaldeide
Spanish formaldehído
Greek -
Slovenian formaldehid
Polish formaldehyd
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch formaldehyde

Record last updated: Thursday 20 October 2016
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk