Top Environmental Fate Ecotoxicology Human Health Translations
Home
A to Z: All
A to Z: Insecticides
A to Z: Herbicides
A to Z: Fungicides
A to Z: Other product constituents
Search
Support information
Purchasing and licensing
Hexachlorobenzene (Ref: ENT 1719)
Last updated: 27/11/2019
(Also known as: HCB; perchlorobenzene)

SUMMARY
Hexachlorobenzene is a fungicide banned in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility and is volatile with a low potential for leaching to groundwater. It may be very persistent in soil systems. Hexachlorobenzene las a low mammalian toxicity but a high potential to bioaccumulate. It may also be carcinogenic. It is highly toxic to fish and moderately toxic to birds, aquatic invertebrates, algae and earthworms.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An chlorinated hydrocarbon fungicide used to control bunt and a pesticide transformation product
Example pests controlled
Common and Dwarf bunt
Example applications
Wheat and some other cereals
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Unknown, Banned
Introduction & key dates
circa 1947
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
-
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₆Cl₆
Canonical SMILES
C1(=C(C(=C(C(=C1Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
CKAPSXZOOQJIBF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C6Cl6/c7-1-2(8)4(10)6(12)5(11)3(1)9
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
hexachlorobenzene -
General status
Pesticide type
Fungicide, Biocide, Metabolite, Wood preservative
Metabolite Type
Soil
Substance group
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Fumigant action on fungal spores
CAS RN
118-74-1
EC number
204-273-9
CIPAC number
161
US EPA chemical code
061001
PubChem CID
8370
Molecular mass
284.80
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
perchlorobenzene
CAS name
hexachlorobenzene
Other status information
WFD priority substance; Chemical subject to PIC regulations; OSPAR candidate; Rotterdam Convention (Class Ia)
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
EU Directive 2008/105/EC EQS surface waters: annual average 0.01 µg l⁻¹; max measured 0.05 µg l⁻¹
UK Statutory standard for the protection of aquatic life in inland, coastal and territorial waters: 0.03 µg l⁻¹ as annual average
Other standards are also available
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not known
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Colourless crystals
Can be a metabolite of:
Parent
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
quintozene Soil - -
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Anticarie
  • Bent-cure
  • Granero
  • No Bunt
Example products using this active
  • Bayer
Formulation and application details
Often used as a seed dressing.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.0047
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
226
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
325
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
242
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
8.51 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.93
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
2.044
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.45
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.03 X 1001
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
2000
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Very persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
General literature states DT₅₀ range 2.7-7.5 years, highly persistent
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
9.7
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Lettuce leaves, n=1
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
50000
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-2.31 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g⁻¹ are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Non-mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
35000
A3 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
3 = Unverified data of known source
(Other literature values Log BCF range 1.6-5.4 (R3); PIC DGD gives BCF range 375-35000)
High potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 10000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 575
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Colinus virginianus
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.03
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.0048
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Pimephales promelas 32 day
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.5
F2 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Daphnia magna 24 hour
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.003
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.01
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Scenedesmus abundans
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Eisenia foetida
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 10000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Primary source of exposure is via diet but risk is low as substance is banned
Occupational
Risk via exhalation
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
Yes, known to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Extremely hazardous
IARC group 2B carcinogen
Endocrine issues - Severely disruption of thyroid hormone production
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H350, H372
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 2: R45
T - Toxic: R48/25
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S45, S53, S60, S61
WHO Classification
Ia (Extremely hazardous)
UN Number
2729
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
hexachlorobenzene
French
hexachlorobenzène
German
Hexachlorbenzol
Danish
hexachlorbenzen
Italian
esaclorobenzene
Spanish
hexaclorobenceno
Greek
-
Polish
heksachlorobenzen
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
hexachloorbenzeen

Record last updated: 27/11/2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242