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Anthracene oil
Last updated: 04/01/2021
(Also known as: paranaphthalene; bis-alkylamino ; green oil; tera olive)

SUMMARY
Anthracene oil is a crop dessicant that does not have EU approval for use. It has a low aqueous solubility, non-mobile and is non-volatile. It is moderately persistent in most soil systems but not expected to be persistent in aqueous systems. Anthracene oil is moderately toxic to mammals but there is some concern regarding its potential to bioaccumulate. It is a skin irritant but there is no data to suggest any significant concerns for human health. It is moderately persistent to birds, fish and aquatic invertebrates
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A hydrocarbon extracted from coal tar which has many purposes including its use as a crop desiccant, defoliant and wood preservative
Example pests controlled
General pest control; Black rot; Lichens; Moss
Example applications
Dormant fruit trees and bushes
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Unknown
Introduction & key dates
-
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₄H₁₀
Canonical SMILES
C1=CC=C2C=C3C=CC=CC3=CC2=C1
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
MWPLVEDNUUSJAV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C14H10/c1-2-6-12-10-14-8-4-3-7-13(14)9-11(12)5-1/h1-10H
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
anthracene Source of the oil
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide, Insecticide, Fungicide, Wood preservative, Disinfectant
Substance group
Petroleum derivative
Minimum active substance purity
~97%
Known relevant impurities
phenanthrene, carbazole, napthothiopene
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Contact action
CAS RN
90640-80-5
Alternative/old CAS RN
120-12-7
EC number
292-602-7
CIPAC number
8018
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
8418
CLP index number
648-103-00-5
Molecular mass
178.22
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
anthracene
IUPAC name
anthracene
CAS name
anthracene
Other status information
WFD priority substance
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
EU Directive 2008/105/EC EQS for anthracene in surface waters: annual average 0.1 µg l⁻¹; max measured 0.4 µg l⁻¹
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not known
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not known
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Off-white to pale green crystals
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
-
Example products using this active
-
Formulation and application details
-
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.037
AC4 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
80
AC4 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
4 = Verified data
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
3.47 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.54
AC4 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.07
AC4 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
4 = Verified data
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
8.00 X 10-07
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
50
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
40
AC4 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
IUCLID-DataSheet Lab studies DT₅₀ range 17-60 days
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
0.33
AC4 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
4 = Verified data
Fast
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Non-mobile
Koc
24362
Notes and range
Estimated
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-0.62 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g⁻¹ are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Non-mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
387
AC4 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
4 = Verified data
Whole fish
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1955
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Mouse
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1261
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Anas platyrhynchos
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.49
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 4.3
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
0.01
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Lemna gibba 8 day
Moderate
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.007
J3 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
High
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
-
Q1 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
1 = Estimated data with little or no verification
Toxic
-
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1955
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Mouse
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
1320
AC4 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
No data found No data found  
General human health issues
No further information available
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Corrosive
CLP classification 2013
Health: H350
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 2: R45
Xi - Irritant: R38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50/53
EC Safety Classification
S45, S53
WHO Classification
NL (Not listed)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
anthracene oil
French
huile d'anthracène
German
Anthracenoel
Danish
anthracenolie
Italian
olio d'antracene
Spanish
aceite del antraceno
Greek
-
Polish
olej antracenowy
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
antraceenolie

Record last updated: 04/01/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242