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monolinuron (Ref: HOE 002747)
** AE F002747 ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Monolinuron is a herbicide that is not widely approved for use in the developed world. It has a low to moderate mammalian oral toxicity. It is highly soluble in water and many organic solvents, and is volatile. Monolinuron has a high leaching potential and studies suggest that it is moderately persistent in soils. It is moderately toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic plants and earthworms. It is relatively less toxic to honeybees.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for monolinuron

Description: A pre- or post-emergence herbicide used to control broad-leaved weeds and some grasses in a wide range of food and non-food crops

Example pests controlled: Broad-leaved weeds; Annual grasses

Example applications: Vegetables including beans, onions; Potatoes; Fruit; Cereals; Ornamentals; Vines

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: circa 1965

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur UK
Date inclusion expires Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) -
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C9H11ClN2O2
Canonical SMILES CN(C(=O)NC1=CC=C(C=C1)Cl)OC
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) LKJPSUCKSLORMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C9H11ClN2O2/c1-12(14-2)9(13)11-8-5-3-7(10)4-6-8/h3-6H,1-2H3,(H,11,13)
Structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Herbicide
Substance group Urea
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Selective, systemic absorbed by roots and leaves and translocated. Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II
CAS RN 1746-81-2
EC number 217-129-5
CIPAC number 169
US EPA chemical code 207500
PubChem CID 15629
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 214.65
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea
CAS name N'-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-methoxy-N-methylurea
Other status information Chemical subject to PIC regulations
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) C2
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) 7
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Colourless crystals
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Bayer CropScience
  • Hoechst
Example products using this active
  • Gramonol
  • Aresin
  • Monamex
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate or wettable powder.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for monolinuron

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 735 B5 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 200000 C4 - Acetone -
3900 C4 - Hexane -
200000 C4 - Methanol -
200000 C4 - Toluene -
Melting point (oC) 81.5 L3 -
Boiling point (oC) - - -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) - - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.58 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P 2.2 B5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.5 B5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.0064 B5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 3.80 X 10-04 H4 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 2.89 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 2.58 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 60 DW4 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 50 K4 Moderately persistent
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note General literature DT50 range 33-66 days (R3)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable C2 -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 22 K4 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - H4 Moderately mobile
Koc 200
Notes and range Best available data
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for monolinuron

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 40 F3 Whole fish Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 2100 B5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 5 B5 Rat High
(ppm diet) 50 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 1690 B5 Coturnix japonica Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 42 B5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 5 P3 Unknown species Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 32.5 B5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.56 P3 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 120 F3 Chironomus riparius, 1 day Low
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 2.4 F3 Lemna spp. Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.001 B1 Scenedemus subspicatus High
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 296 L3 Low
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 1000 L3 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect Moderately harmful AA2 Chrysoperla carnea -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for monolinuron

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 2100 B5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 L3 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 3.39 L3 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.003 A5 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 List II - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational -
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Moderately toxic

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes No information available
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302, H373
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R22, R48/22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S22, S60, S61
WHO Classification III - Slightly hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) No consensus across products or no products available - -
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for monolinuron

Language Name
English monolinuron
French monolinuron
German Monolinuron
Danish monolinuron
Italian monolinuron
Spanish monolinuron
Greek monolinuron
Slovenian monolinuron
Polish monolinuron
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch monolinuron

Record last updated: Thursday 24 May 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk