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picloram (Ref: X 159868)
** piclorame ** picloram acid ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION
for picloram

Description: A persistent herbicide for the control of broad-leaved weeds on non-crop and utility areas

Introduction: 1963

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur UK
Date inclusion expires 31/12/2018

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries:

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also registered in: Australia

General status:
Pesticide type Herbicide
Substance group Pyridine compound
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Selective, systemic absorbed by roots and leaves and translocated
CAS RN 1918-02-1
EC number 217-636-1
CIPAC number 174
US EPA chemical code 005101
Chiral molecule No
Chemical formula C6H3Cl3N2O2
SMILES Clc1c(N)c(Cl)c(nc1Cl)C(=O)O
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1/C6H3Cl3N2O2/c7-1-3(10)2(8)5(9)11-4(1)6(12)13/h(H2,10,11)(H,12,13)
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 241.46
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropyridine-2-carboxylic acid
CAS name 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid
Other status information -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) O
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Physical state Light brown to tan coloured solid
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Value
Example manufacturers of products using this active
  • AgriGuard
  • Dow AgroSciences
  • Nomix Environ
  • Pan Agriculture
Example products using this active
  • Galera
  • Tordone 22K
  • Tordone 101
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Often supplied as a soluble concentrate or liquid that is mixed with water and used as a spray.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for picloram

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 560 A5 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 10 A5 - n-Heptane -
105 A5 - Xylene -
23900 A5 - Acetone -
19100 A5 - Methanol -
Melting point (oC) 174 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 179 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.20 X 10-02 Calculated -
Log P -1.92 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.81 Q2 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 2.3 A5 -
Note: Strong acid
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 8.0 X 10-05 A5 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 3.0 X 10-07 A5 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) 1.42 X 10-11 Calculated Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index 6.03 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Value 1.17 X 10+01 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Unbuffered pH4.42 solution: 223nm = 28900; [Acidic solution: 223nm = 28700, 293nm = 2100; [Basic solution: 223nm = 30400, 293nm = 2100 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 72.0 A5 at 20oC -

Degradation:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 82.8 A5 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 82.8 A5 Moderately persistent
DT50 (field) 36 A4 Moderately persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 318 A5 -
DT90 (field) 120 A5 -
Note EU dossier Lab studies DT50 range 5.2-292 days, DT90 range 16.7-982.1 days; Field studies DT50 range 20-49 days, DT90 range 67-163 days
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 2.0 A5 Moderately fast
Note DT50: 3.5 days sterile water , 2 days natural water both in summer sunlight 40 deg N and pH 5
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 Very persistent
Note Stable pH 5 to pH 9, at 25 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 196.1 A5 Slow
Water phase only DT50 (days) 80.8 A5 Stable

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Linear Kd - DW3 Very mobile
Koc 13
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 0.14 A5 Very mobile
Kfoc 7.22
1/n 0.773
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 0.04-0.73 mL/g, Kfoc range 0.31-20.3 mL/g, 1/n range 0.44-1.52, Soils=14
pH sensitivity Yes - soils pH >5 show lower adsorption

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-hydroxypicolinic acid 6-OH picloram Plant - -
oxamic acid - Water (Photolysis) - -
3-oxo-beta-alanine - Water (Photolysis) - -
4-amino-2,3,5-trichloropyridine
(Ref: K-041160)
PYR Plant - -
aminopyralid
(Ref: XDE 750)
Note: A5
- Water; Sediment - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for picloram

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor BCF 74 F4 Whole fish Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Bioaccumulation potential - Calculated Low
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 4012 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - L2 Rat, 2 year -
(ppm diet) 20 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 1944 A5 Anas platyrhynchos Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 5620 mg kg feed-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 8.8 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.55 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 44.2 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 6.79 A5 Daphnia magna -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 100 A5 Chironomus riparius Low
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 102 A5 Lemna gibba Low
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 60.2 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees - Acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 74 A5 Oral Moderate
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 4475 A5 Eisenia foetida Low
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 0.167 A4 Eisenia foetida, 8 week Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 23.45 A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi Harmful at 1 kg ha-1
Moderately harmful at 0.1 kg ha-1
Harmless at 0.01 kg ha-1
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 23.45 A5 Typhlodromus pyri Harmful at 1 kg ha-1
Moderately harmful at 0.1 kg ha-1
Harmless at 0.01 kg ha-1
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for picloram

General:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 4012 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 0.035 A5 Rat, 4 hr (whole body) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.3 A5 Rabbit, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.3 A5 Rabbit, SF=100 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.3 A5 Rabbit, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 0.1-10.0 A5 concentration dependant -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits [LT TWA 8hr: 10 mg/m3], [ST 15 mins: 20 mg/m3] MEL UK HSE -
Exposure Routes Public No unacceptable risks to bystanders identified
Occupational No unacceptable risks to operators or other workers identified
Examples of European MRLs (mg kg-1) Value Rapeseed: 0.01
Note A5 EU dossier proposals
For the EU pesticides database click here
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) 0.1 EU Dir 89/778/EC limit; Calc MAC=900 g/l; A5 -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Eye irritant

-

General human health issues Slightly toxic

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data

Handling issues:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
General Prevent generation of dust
Not oxidising or explosive
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013 -
EC Risk Classification N - Dangerous for the environment: R51, R53
EC Safety Classification S60, S61
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
US EPA Classification (formulation) I - Danger - Highly toxic
UN Number Usually 3082
Waste disposal & packaging Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for picloram

Language Name
English picloram
French piclorame
German Picloram
Danish picloram
Italian picloram
Spanish picloram
Greek -
Slovenian pikloram
Polish pikloram
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch -

Record last updated: Friday 03 August 2012
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk