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benomyl (Ref: T 1991)
** benosan ** kribenomy ** D-1991 ** BBC ** BNM ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Benomyl is a foliar fungicide that no longer has EU approval for use. It has a low aqueous solubility, is volatile, is slightly mobile and, based on its chemical properties, is not expected to leach to groundwater. It is generally not persistent in soil systems but may persist in some water systems under certain conditions. Benomyl has a low mammalian toxicity with a low potential for bioaccumulation. It is also reported to have harmful effects on human development/fertility. It is moderately toxic to birds, honeybees, earthworms and most aquatic organisms

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for benomyl

Description: A broad-spectrum foliar fungicide used to control a wide range of Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti in a wide range of crops

Example pests controlled: Fruit spot; Powdery mildew; Scab; Post-harvest decay; Blosson end rot; Blosson blight; Brown rot; Collar rot; Phoma leaf blotch; Black spot; Corm rot; Loose smut; Sclerotina rot

Example applications: Field crops; Nuts; Muschrooms; Ornamentals; Turf; Apples & pears; Peaches; Curcubits; Peppers; Peas; Grapes

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1968, Introduced

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Germany
Date inclusion expires Not applicable

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: USA

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Fungicide, Miticide
Substance group Benzimidazole
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Systemic with protectant and eradicant activity. Also has ovicidal activity against mites. Inhibition of mitosis and cell division (Beta-tubulin assembly in mitosis)
CAS RN 17804-35-2
EC number 241-775-7
CIPAC number 206
US EPA chemical code 099101
CLP index number 613-049-00-3
Chiral molecule No
Chemical formula C14H18N4O3
SMILES O=C(n1c2ccccc2nc1NC(=O)OC)NCCCC
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) RIOXQFHNBCKOKP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C14H18N4O3/c1-3-4-9-15-13(19)18-11-8-6-5-7-10(11)16-12(18)17-14(20)21-2/h5-8H,3-4,9H2,1-2H3,(H,15,19)(H,16,17,20)
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 290.32
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) methyl [1-(butylcarbamoyl)-1H-1,3-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate
IUPAC name methyl 1-(butylcarbamoyl)benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate
CAS name methyl [1-[(butylamino)carbonyl]-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate
Other status information Chemical subject to PIC regulations (some formulations); Marine Pollutant
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) 1
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Tan coloured crystals
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • DuPont
  • Dongbu Fine Chemicals Co. Ltd.
  • King Tech
Example products using this active
  • Benlate
  • Tersan 1991
  • Benex
  • Benefit
  • Comply
  • Agrocut
  • Benosan
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use or outside scope
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as an oil dispersible product or as a wettable powder.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for benomyl

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 2 B5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 94000 B4 - Chloroform -
18000 B4 - Acetone -
10000 B4 - Xylene -
4000 B4 - Ethanol -
Melting point (oC) Decomposes before melting L3 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling V3 -
Degradation point (oC) 140 L3 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable V3 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.51 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P 1.4 B5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity - - -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 4.48 H4 -
Note: Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 0.005 G4 Volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 4.00 X 10-04 L3 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) 2.02 X 10-07 Q2 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index -0.07 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 9.09 X 10-05 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated High
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 67.0 DW4 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 0.8 H2 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
Note Other sources: Very variable data DT50 0.1-100 days, more usually 3-12 months
Plant matrix DT50 (days) Value 4.3 R4 -
Note DT50 range 1.6 - 7.2 days, 3 plants/crops, leaf matrices
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value Stable L3 -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 0.8 L3 Non-persistent
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - L3 Slightly mobile
Koc 1900
Notes and range Best available data
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 91/414 relevancy Click here for further information on 91/414 relevancy
carbendazim (Ref: BAS 346F) Soil     -

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
N,N-dibutylurea
Note: Toxic
- Soil - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for benomyl

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 27 Q2 Whole fish Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 10000 B5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 125 B5 Rat Moderate
(ppm diet) 2500 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 1000 G3 Anas platyrhynchos Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.17 F3 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.011 F4 Oncorhynchus mykiss, LOEC Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.28 F3 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.025 F3 Daphnia magna, LOEC Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.14 F3 Americamysis bahia Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 2.2 F3 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 2 F4 Scenedesmus acutus Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 10 F3 Moderate
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 10.5 L3 Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect Harmful AB1 Typhlodromus pyri -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for benomyl

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 10000 B5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 5000 L3 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 2.0 L3 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.1 JMPR 1995 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits [LT TWA 8hr: 10 mg/m3], [ST 15 mins: 15 mg/m3] Occupation Exposure -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational Occupational exposure may occur through inhalation and dermal contact
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues May cause eye defects in new borns - anophthalmia
May cause contact dermatitis and may be a skin sensitiser

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes No information available
CLP classification 2013 Health: H315, H317, H335, H340, H360FD
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Mutagenic category 2: R46
Reproduction risk category 2: R60, R61
Xn - Harmful: R43
Xi - Irritant: R37, R38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S43, S53, S61, S60
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
US EPA Classification (formulation) IV - Caution - Not acutely toxic
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for benomyl

Language Name
English benomyl
French bénomyl
German Benomyl
Danish benomyl
Italian benomil
Spanish benomil; benomyl
Greek benomyl
Slovenian benomil
Polish benomyl
Swedish benomyl
Hungarian benomil
Dutch benomyl

Record last updated: Saturday 13 August 2016
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk