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Benomyl (Ref: T 1991)
Last updated: 31/12/2020
(Also known as: benosan; kribenomy; D-1991; BBC; BNM)

SUMMARY
Benomyl is a foliar fungicide that no longer has EU approval for use. It has a low aqueous solubility, is volatile, is slightly mobile and, based on its chemical properties, is not expected to leach to groundwater. It is generally not persistent in soil systems but may persist in some water systems under certain conditions. Benomyl has a low mammalian toxicity with a low potential for bioaccumulation. It is also reported to have harmful effects on human development/fertility. It is moderately toxic to birds, honeybees, earthworms and most aquatic organisms
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A broad-spectrum foliar fungicide used to control a wide range of Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti in a wide range of crops
Example pests controlled
Fruit spot; Powdery mildew; Scab; Post-harvest decay; Blosson end rot; Blosson blight; Brown rot; Collar rot; Phoma leaf blotch; Black spot; Corm rot; Loose smut; Sclerotina rot
Example applications
Field crops; Nuts; Muschrooms; Ornamentals; Turf; Apples & pears; Peaches; Curcubits; Peppers; Peas; Grapes
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1968, Introduced
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Not applicable
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Germany
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₁₄H₁₈N₄O₃
Canonical SMILES
CCCCNC(=O)N1C2=CC=CC=C2N=C1NC(=O)OC
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
RIOXQFHNBCKOKP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C14H18N4O3/c1-3-4-9-15-13(19)18-11-8-6-5-7-10(11)16-12(18)17-14(20)21-2/h5-8H,3-4,9H2,1-2H3,(H,15,19)(H,16,17,20)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Fungicide, Miticide
Substance group
Benzimidazole
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Systemic with protectant and eradicant activity. Also has ovicidal activity against mites. Inhibition of mitosis and cell division (Beta-tubulin assembly in mitosis)
CAS RN
17804-35-2
EC number
241-775-7
CIPAC number
206
US EPA chemical code
099101
PubChem CID
28780
CLP index number
613-049-00-3
Molecular mass
290.32
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
methyl [1-(butylcarbamoyl)-1H-1,3-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate
IUPAC name
methyl 1-(butylcarbamoyl)benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate
CAS name
methyl [1-[(butylamino)carbonyl]-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate
Other status information
Chemical subject to PIC regulations (some formulations); Marine Pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
1
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Tan coloured crystals
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Benlate
  • Tersan 1991
  • Benex
  • Benefit
  • Comply
  • Agrocut
  • Benosan
Example products using this active
  • DuPont
  • Dongbu Fine Chemicals Co. Ltd.
  • King Tech
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as an oil dispersible product or as a wettable powder.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
2
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
94000
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Chloroform
-
18000
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Acetone
-
10000
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Xylene
-
4000
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Ethanol
-
Melting point (°C)
Decomposes before melting
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
140
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.51 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P
1.4
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
4.48
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
-
Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.005
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
4.00 X 10-04
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
67.0
DW4 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
0.8
H2 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Other sources: Very variable data DT₅₀ 0.1-100 days, more usually 3-12 months
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
6.1
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Apple leaves, n=1
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
1.7
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 1.6-1.8 days, 3 undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=3
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
Stable
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
0.8
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slightly mobile
Koc
1900
Notes and range
Best available data
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-0.07 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
9.09 X 10-05 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Slightly mobile Calculated -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
carbendazim (Ref: BAS 346F)
Soil - -
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
N,N-dibutylurea
Note: Toxic
- Soil - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
27
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Whole fish
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 10000
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
125
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Moderate
(ppm diet)
2500 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1000
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anas platyrhynchos
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.17
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.011
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss LOEC
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.28
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.025
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna LOEC
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.14
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Americamysis bahia
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
2.2
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lemna gibba
Moderate
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
2
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Scenedesmus acutus
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
10
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
10.5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmful
AB1 AB = SELECTV Database
1 = Estimated data with little or no verification
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 10000
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
5000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
2.0
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.1
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
JMPR 1995
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
Occupational exposure may occur through inhalation and dermal contact
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E1 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
1 = Positive
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause eye defects in new borns - anophthalmia
May cause contact dermatitis and may be a skin sensitiser
Endocrine issues - Increase of estrogen production and aromatase activity
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H315, H317, H335, H340, H360FD
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Mutagenic category 2: R46
Reproduction risk category 2: R60, R61
Xn - Harmful: R43
Xi - Irritant: R37, R38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S43, S53, S61, S60
WHO Classification
U (Unlikely to present an acute hazard)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
benomyl
French
bénomyl
German
Benomyl
Danish
benomyl
Italian
benomil
Spanish
benomil; benomyl
Greek
benomyl
Polish
benomyl
Swedish
benomyl
Hungarian
benomil
Dutch
benomyl

Record last updated: 31/12/2020
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242