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benomyl (Ref: T 1991)
** benosan ** kribenomy ** D-1991 ** BBC ** BNM ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Benomyl is a foliar fungicide that no longer has EU approval for use. It has a low aqueous solubility, is non volatile, is slightly mobile and, based on its chemical properties, is not expected to leach to groundwater. It is generally not persistent in soil systems but may persist in some water systems under certain conditions. Benomyl has a low mammalian toxicity with a low potential for bioaccumulation. It is also reported to have harmful effects on human development/fertility. It is moderately toxic to birds, honeybees, earthworms and most aquatic organisms

GENERAL INFORMATION
for benomyl

Description: A foliar fungicide used to control a wide range of Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti in a wide range of crops

Introduction: circa 1970

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Germany
Date inclusion expires Essential uses only

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries:

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also registered in: USA

General status:
Pesticide type Fungicide, Miticide
Substance group Benzimidazole
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Systemic with protectant and eradicant activity. Also has ovicidal activity against mites. Inhibition of mitosis and cell division (Beta-tubulin assembly in mitosis)
CAS RN 17804-35-2
EC number 241-775-7
CIPAC number 206
US EPA chemical code 099101
CLP index number 613-049-00-3
Chiral molecule No
Chemical formula C14H18N4O3
SMILES O=C(n1c2ccccc2nc1NC(=O)OC)NCCCC
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) RIOXQFHNBCKOKP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C14H18N4O3/c1-3-4-9-15-13(19)18-11-8-6-5-7-10(11)16-12(18)17-14(20)21-2/h5-8H,3-4,9H2,1-2H3,(H,15,19)(H,16,17,20)
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 290.32
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) methyl [1-(butylcarbamoyl)-1H-1,3-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate
IUPAC name methyl 1-(butylcarbamoyl)benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate
CAS name methyl [1-[(butylamino)carbonyl]-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate
Other status information PIC Annex III (some formulations); Marine Pollutant
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) 1
Physical state Tan coloured crystals
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active
  • DuPont
  • Dongbu Fine Chemicals Co. Ltd.
  • King Tech
Example products using this active
  • Benlate
  • Tersan 1991
  • Benex
  • Benefit
  • Comply
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use or outside scope
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as an oil dispersible product or as a wettable powder.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for benomyl

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 2 B5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 94000 B4 - Chloroform -
18000 B4 - Acetone -
10000 B4 - Xylene -
4000 B4 - Ethanol -
Melting point (oC) Decomposes before melting L3 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling V3 -
Degradation point (oC) 140 L3 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable V3 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.51 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P 1.4 B5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity - - -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 4.48 H4 -
Note: Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 0.005 G4 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 4.00 X 10-04 L3 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) 2.02 X 10-07 Q2 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index 1.32 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Value 9.09 X 10-05 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated High
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 67.0 DW4 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 0.8 H2 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
Note Other sources: Very variable data DT50 0.1-100 days, more usually 3-12 months
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value Stable L3 Stable
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 0.8 L3 Non-persistent
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Linear Kd - L3 Slightly mobile
Koc 1900
Notes and range Best available data
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 91/414 relevancy
carbendazim (Ref: BAS 346F) Soil     -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for benomyl

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor BCF 27 Q2 Whole fish Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Bioaccumulation potential - Calculated Low
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 10000 B5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 125 B5 Rat Moderate
(ppm diet) 2500 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 1000 G3 Anas platyrhynchos Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.17 F3 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.011 F4 Oncorhynchus mykiss, LOEC -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.28 F3 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.025 F3 Daphnia magna, LOEC -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.14 F3 Americamysis bahia Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 2.2 F3 Lemna gibba Moderate
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 2 F4 Scenedesmus acutus Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 10 F3 Moderate
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 10.5 L3 Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect Harmful AB1 Typhlodromus pyri Harmful
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for benomyl

General:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 10000 B5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 5000 L3 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 2.0 L3 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.1 JMPR 1995 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits [LT TWA 8hr: 10 mg/m3], [ST 15 mins: 15 mg/m3] Occupation Exposure -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational Occupational exposure may occur through inhalation and dermal contact
Examples of European MRLs (mg kg-1) Value Oat grains: 2.0; Brussel sprouts, eggplants, tomatoes, citrus, cherries, plums and wine grapes: 0.5; Table grapes: 0.3; Beans (with pods), peas (with pods), pomes, apricots, nectarines and peaches: 0.2; Other vegetables, other fruit, rye grains and wheat grains: 0.1; Corn grains: 0.01
Note Current May 2007. Data expressed as carbendazim.
For the EU pesticides database click here
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Eye irritant

-

General human health issues May cause eye defects in new borns - anophthalmia
May cause contact dermatitis and may be a skin sensitiser

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data

Handling issues:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
General No information available
CLP classification 2013 -
EC Risk Classification Mutagenic category 2: R46
Reproduction risk category 2: R60, R61
Xn - Harmful: R43
Xi - Irritant: R37, R38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification S43, S53, S61, S60
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
US EPA Classification (formulation) IV - Caution - Not acutely toxic
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging -


TRANSLATIONS

for benomyl

Language Name
English benomyl
French bénomyl
German Benomyl
Danish benomyl
Italian benomil
Spanish benomil; benomyl
Greek benomyl
Slovenian benomil
Polish benomyl
Swedish benomyl
Hungarian benomil
Dutch benomyl

Record last updated: Saturday 13 December 2014
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk