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acephate
** orthene ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Acephate is an organophosphate insecticide that does not have approval for use in the EU. It is highly soluble in water and most organic solvents, and is non-volatile. It is not expected to leach to groundwater. Whilst it is mobile, it tends not to be persistence in soil or aquatic systems. It is moderately toxic to mammals and has a low potential for bioaccumulation. It is also a recognised irritant. It is has a moderate to low toxicity to birds, honeybees, earthworms and most aquatic organisms.

GENERAL INFORMATION
for acephate

Description: An organophosphate insecticide used normally as a foliar spray to control chewing and sucking insects

Introduction: circa 1970

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Italy
Date inclusion expires Expired

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries:

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also registered in: Australia, USA

General status:
Pesticide type Insecticide
Substance group Organophosphate
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Broad-spectrum, contact and ingestion systemic action. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor.
CAS RN 30560-19-1
EC number 250-241-2
CIPAC number 338
US EPA chemical code 103301
Chiral molecule Chiral or specific isomer of chiral molecule
Chemical formula C4H10NO3PS
SMILES O=C(NP(=O)(OC)SC)C
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1/C4H10NO3PS/c1-4(6)5-9(7,8-2)10-3/h1-3H3,(H,5,6,7)
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 183.17
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) (E)-(O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate)
IUPAC name (RS)-N-[methoxy(methylthio)phosphinoyl]acetamide
CAS name O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate
Other status information Potential groundwater contaminant
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) 1B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Physical state Colourless/white solid
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active
  • Cheminova
  • King Tech Corp
  • United Phorsporus
  • Valent
Example products using this active
  • Tornado
  • Ortril
  • Cekucefate
  • Sunphate
  • Orthene
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use or outside scope
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as a soluble powder or granules.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for acephate

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 790000 W4 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 151000 L3 - Acetone -
100000 L3 - Ethanol -
35000 L3 - Ethyl acetate -
100 L3 - Hexane -
Melting point (oC) 89 L3 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling L3 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) - - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.41 X 10-01 Calculated -
Log P -0.85 R3 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.35 L3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 8.35 F4 -
Note: Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 0.226 L3 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 5.15 X 10-08 H4 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) 2.15 X 10-11 Calculated Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index 1.14 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Value 2.54 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 3 H4 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT50 (field) 3 H4 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
Note Best available data
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 2 L3 Moderately fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 50 CA3 Moderately persistent
Note Hydrolysis data applies for pH range 5-7
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Linear Kd 1.6 R4 Moderately mobile
Koc 302
Notes and range Literature data: Kd range 0.54-4.98 mL/g, Koc range 24.4-545 mL/g, Soils = 19
Freundlich Kf 0.21 R4 Mobile
Kfoc 40.3
1/n 1.81
Notes and range Literature data: Kf range 0.01-0.90 mL/g, Kfoc range 1.9-188 mL/g, 1.n range 1.43-2.08, Soils = 19
pH sensitivity -

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 91/414 relevancy
methamidophos (Ref: ENT 27396) Soil     -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for acephate

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor BCF 0.03 J4 Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Bioaccumulation potential - Calculated Low
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 945 F4 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 0.25 L2 Rat High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 350 F3 Anas platyrhynchos Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 110 F3 Oncorhynchus mykiss Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 4.7 F2 Galaxias maculatus, 20 day -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 67.2 L3 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 43 L3 Daphnia magna -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 7.3 F3 Americamysis bahia Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 980 L2 Unknown species Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees - Acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 1.2 F3 Contact Moderate
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 22974 L3 Low
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect Harmful Q2 Parasitoids Harmful
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for acephate

General:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 945 F4 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 10000 L3 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 15.0 L3 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.03 JMPR 2005 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.1 JMPR 2005 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 List I; List II - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Dermal route highest risk
Minimal risk of dietary exposure
Small risk of exposure in food and water from metabolite methamidophos
Source: US EPA
Occupational Possible exposure via inhalation and dermal contact
Source: US EPA
Examples of European MRLs (mg kg-1) Value Vegetables: 0.02; Fruit: 0.02; Cereal grains: 0.02
Note Current May 2007.
For the EU pesticides database click here
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Eye irritant

-

-

-

General human health issues No further information available

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data

Handling issues:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
General IMDG Transport Code is 6.1
CLP classification 2013 -
EC Risk Classification Xn - Harmful: R22
EC Safety Classification S2, S36
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number Active 2783, liquid products usually 3018
Waste disposal & packaging -


TRANSLATIONS

for acephate

Language Name
English acephate
French acéphate
German Acephat
Danish acephat
Italian acefate
Spanish acefato
Greek -
Slovenian acefat
Polish acefat
Swedish -
Hungarian acefat
Dutch -

Record last updated: Saturday 28 June 2014
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk