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acephate
** orthene ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Acephate is an organophosphate insecticide that does not have approval for use in the EU. It is highly soluble in water and most organic solvents, and is volatile. It is not expected to leach to groundwater. Whilst it is mobile, it tends not to be persistence in soil or aquatic systems. It is moderately toxic to mammals and has a low potential for bioaccumulation. Acephate is also a recognised irritant. It is has a moderate to low toxicity to birds, honeybees, earthworms and most aquatic organisms.

GENERAL INFORMATION
for acephate

Description: An organophosphate insecticide used normally as a foliar spray to control chewing and sucking insects

Example pests controlled: Aphids; Leaf miners; Lepidopterous larvae; Sawflies; Thrips

Example applications: Fruit; Vegetables; Potatoes; Sugarbeet; Vines; Hops; Ornamentals; Greenhousecrops including peppers, cucumbers

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: circa 1970

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Italy
Date inclusion expires Expired

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries:

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

General status:
Pesticide type Insecticide
Substance group Organophosphate
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Broad-spectrum, contact and ingestion systemic action. Weak acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor.
CAS RN 30560-19-1
EC number 250-241-2
CIPAC number 338
US EPA chemical code 103301
Chiral molecule Chiral, a specific isomer or a derivative of a chiral molecule
Chemical formula C4H10NO3PS
SMILES O=C(NP(=O)(OC)SC)C
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) YASYVMFAVPKPKE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C4H10NO3PS/c1-4(6)5-9(7,8-2)10-3/h1-3H3,(H,5,6,7)
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 183.17
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) (E)-(O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate)
IUPAC name (RS)-N-[methoxy(methylthio)phosphinoyl]acetamide
CAS name O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate
Other status information Potential groundwater contaminant; Chemical subject to PIC regulations
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) 1B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance Adoxophyes orana
Aphis gossypii
Myzus persicae
Phorodon humuli
Trialeurodes vaporariorum
Lygus lineolaris
plus others
Physical state Colourless/white solid
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Cheminova
  • King Tech Corp
  • United Phorsporus
  • Valent
  • Chevron
Example products using this active
  • Tornado
  • Ortril
  • Cekucefate
  • Sunphate
  • Orthene
  • Ortran
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use or outside scope
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as a soluble powder or granules.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for acephate

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 790000 W4 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 151000 L3 - Acetone -
100000 L3 - Ethanol -
35000 L3 - Ethyl acetate -
100 L3 - Hexane -
Melting point (oC) 89 L3 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling L3 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) - - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.41 X 10-01 Calculated -
Log P -0.85 R3 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.35 L3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 8.35 F4 -
Note: Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 0.226 L3 Volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 5.15 X 10-08 H4 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) 2.15 X 10-11 Calculated Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index 1.14 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Value 2.54 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 3 H4 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT50 (field) 3 H4 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
Note Best available data
Foliar DT50 (days) Value 3.0 A4 -
Note Data range 1.7-8.2, n=2; Other data sources: DT50 = 3.0 days (USDA, F4); 5.8-6.1 days on tomato leaves & fruit (R4); DT50 6 days peppers, 3.7 days cucumbers (R4)
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 2 L3 Moderately fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 50 CA3 Moderately persistent
Note Hydrolysis data applies for pH range 5-7
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Linear Kd 1.6 R4 Moderately mobile
Koc 302
Notes and range Literature data: Kd range 0.54-4.98 mL/g, Koc range 24.4-545 mL/g, Soils = 19
Freundlich Kf 0.21 R4 Mobile
Kfoc 40.3
1/n 1.81
Notes and range Literature data: Kf range 0.01-0.90 mL/g, Kfoc range 1.9-188 mL/g, 1.n range 1.43-2.08, Soils = 19
pH sensitivity -

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 91/414 relevancy
methamidophos (Ref: ENT 27396) Soil     -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for acephate

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 0.03 J4 Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 945 F4 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 0.25 L2 Rat High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 350 F3 Anas platyrhynchos Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 110 F3 Oncorhynchus mykiss Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 4.7 F2 Galaxias maculatus, 20 day Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 67.2 L3 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 43 L3 Daphnia magna Low
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 7.3 F3 Americamysis bahia Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 980 L2 Unknown species Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 1.2 F3 Moderate
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 22974 L3 Low
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect Harmful Q2 Parasitoids -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for acephate

General:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 945 F4 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 10000 L3 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 15.0 L3 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.03 JMPR 2005 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.1 JMPR 2005 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 List I; List II - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Dermal route highest risk
Minimal risk of dietary exposure
Small risk of exposure in food and water from metabolite methamidophos
Source: US EPA
Occupational Possible exposure via inhalation and dermal contact
Source: US EPA
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

-

-

General human health issues No further information available

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
General IMDG Transport Code is 6.1
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302
EC Risk Classification Xn - Harmful: R22
EC Safety Classification S2, S36
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number Active 2783, liquid products usually 3018
Waste disposal & packaging -


TRANSLATIONS

for acephate

Language Name
English acephate
French acéphate
German Acephat
Danish acephat
Italian acefate
Spanish acefato
Greek -
Slovenian acefat
Polish acefat
Swedish -
Hungarian acefat
Dutch -

Record last updated: Thursday 25 February 2016
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk