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bromoxynil (Ref: ENT 20852)
** butil chlorofos ** bromotril ** bromoxynil phenol ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

A widely used herbicide approved for use in the EU. It has a high aqueous solubility and is not considered to be volatile. The potential for leaching to groundwater is considered low, and it is not expected to be persistent in soil or water systems. It is highly toxic to mammals, is an endocrine distrupter and may cause negative reproduction or development effects. It is moderately toxic to most aquatic and terrestrial biodviersity. The main exceptions are a low toxicity to algae and honeybees by the contact route (not the oral route).

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for bromoxynil

Description: An HBN herbicide used for post-emergence control of annual broad-leaved weeds. it is also a pesticide transformation product

Example pests controlled: Pigweed; Mayweed; Knotweed; Shepherd's purse; Goosefoot; Morning glory; Dwarf marigold; Stinkweed; Cocklebur; Wild radish

Example applications: Cereals including wheat, barley, oats; Lucerne; Corn; Sorghum; Onions; Flax; Mint; Turf; Non-crop land

Efficacy & activity: Proved as effective by extensive use over a prolonged period and via field experiments

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1963, first reported.

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur France/Germany
Date inclusion expires 31/07/2019
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism None
Chemical formula C7H3Br2NO
Canonical SMILES C1=C(C=C(C(=C1Br)O)Br)C#N
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) UPMXNNIRAGDFEH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C7H3Br2NO/c8-5-1-4(3-10)2-6(9)7(5)11/h1-2,11H
Structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Herbicide, Metabolite
Metabolite Type Soil
Substance group Hydroxybenzonitrile
Minimum active substance purity 970 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Selective, contact action with some systemic activity. Inhibits photosynthesis (photosystem II).
CAS RN 1689-84-5
EC number 216-882-7
CIPAC number 87
US EPA chemical code 035301
PubChem CID 15531
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 276.9
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile
IUPAC name 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile
CAS name 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile
Other status information Marine Pollutant; PAN listed Highly Hazardous Chemical
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards UK Environment Agency non-statutory standard for the protection of aquatic life: freshwater and saltwater annual average 100 ug/L; max acceptable conc: 1000 ug/L
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) C3
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) 6
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Clear to white crystalline solid
Related substances & organisms

Can be a metabolite of:
Parent Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
bromoxynil octanoate Soil   0.446   Major fraction, Relevant
bromoxynil heptanoate Soil   0.317   Major fraction, Relevant
bromoxynil butanoate Soil   0.379   Major fraction, Relevant

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Barclay
  • Nufarm
  • Dow AgroSciences
Example products using this active
  • Emblem
  • Brominex
  • Chipco Buctril
  • Brominal Plus
UK LERAP status Buffer probably required in UK - see product label
Formulation and application details Spray application.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for bromoxynil

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 38000 A5 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 186000 A5 - Acetone -
80500 A5 - Methanol -
46700 A5 - n-Octanol -
51100 A5 - Acetonitrile -
Melting point (oC) 190.5 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A4 -
Degradation point (oC) 270 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.86 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P 0.27 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.63 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 3.86 A5 -
Note: Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.12 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 8.7 X 10-07 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.03 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 5.30 X 10-04 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 In methanol: 221.2nm = 30343, 286.8nm = 18302, 295.0nm=16215 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 73.0 A5 at 20 degC, 90% -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 1.04 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 1.04 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 8 Y4 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 5.16 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU 2017 dossier lab studies DT50 range 0.15-4.42 days, DT90 range 0.60-24.17 days, Soils=17; Other sources: field studies from literature (R3), generally DT50 7-10 days (Q3)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 2.2 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 1.1-3.2 days, 2 field crops, various matrices, n=2
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 0.5 A5 Fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 13 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 13 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - R3 Moderately mobile
Koc 302
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 2.84 A5 Moderately mobile
Kfoc 127.2
1/n 0.98
Notes and range EU 2017 dossier kf range 0.8-5.9 mL/g; Kfoc range 57-256 mL/g; 1/n range 0.937-1.009, Soils=5
pH sensitivity Yes - lower mobility at low pH

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
3,5-di-bromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.348   Major fraction, Relevant
3,5-di-bromo-4-hydroxybenzamide This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.216   Major fraction, Relevant


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for bromoxynil

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) Low risk A5 Based on LogP < 3 Low potential
CT50 (days) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 130 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 16.6 L2 Rat, 2 year High
(ppm diet) 100 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 217 A5 Colinus virginianus Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) 1380 mg kg feed-1 A5 Anas platyrhynchos -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 29.2 A5 Lepomis macrochirus Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 2.0 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 12.5 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 3.1 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.033 A5 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.12 A4 Navicula pelliculosa, 72 hour Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 3.13 F4 Green algae population study Low
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 150 A5 Apis mellifera Low
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 10.9 A5 Apis mellifera Moderate
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 45 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 4.5 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 17.9
-23.6
Mortality
Parasitism
Dose: 0.45 kg ha-1
A3 Aphidius rhopalosiphi, adults
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 0 Mortality
Dose: 0.45 kg ha-1
A3 Typhlodromus pyri
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: Low, transient effect
Carbon mineralisation: Low, transient effect
A5 {Dose: 3.73 mg kg-1, 28 days -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for bromoxynil

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 130 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.15 A5 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.03 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.013 A5 Rat, SF=300 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) 0.013 A5 Rat, SF=300 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.003 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 3.5 A5 -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Minimal risk from dietary exposure
Risk assessment indicates ARfD would not normally be execeeded
Occupational Low risk from registered uses with PPE/PPC, High risk without PPE/PPC
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

General human health issues USEPA - possible human carcinogen
Possible liver and thyroid toxicant

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1
Not explosive or oxidising
CLP classification 2013 Health: H301, H317, H330, H360d
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Reproduction risk category 3: R63
T+ - Very toxic: R26
T - Toxic: R25
Xn - Harmful: R43
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S1/2, S27/28, S36/37, S45, S60, S61, S63
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) II - Warning - Moderately toxic
UN Number 2588
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for bromoxynil

Language Name
English bromoxynil
French bromoxynil
German Bromoxynil
Danish bromoxynil
Italian bromoxinil
Spanish bromoxinil
Greek bromoxynil
Slovenian bromoksinil
Polish bromoksynil
Swedish -
Hungarian bromoxynil
Dutch bromoxynil

Record last updated: Tuesday 30 October 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk