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Camphechlor (Ref: Hercules 3956)
Last updated: 13/10/2023
(Also known as: toxaphene; polychlorocamphene; chlorocamphene; toxafeen; octachlorocamphene)

SUMMARY
Camphechlor is an obsolete insecticide and acaricide. It has a low aqueous solubility, is quite volatile and moderately mobile. Based on its chemical properties, it has a high risk of leaching to groundwater. It is not expected to be persistent in soil but may be persistent in water systems. Camphechlor is highly toxic to mammals and is likely to bioaccumulate. It is highly toxic to birds and most aquatic organisms.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Drainflow: Moderately mobile
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Birds acute ecotoxicity: High; Fish acute ecotoxicity: High; Fish chronic ecotoxicity: High; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: High; Bees acute contact ecotoxicity: High
Human health
High alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: High; Reproduction/development effects
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Control of ticks, flas and mange mites
Availability status
Considered obsolete but may be available in some countries; Banned in many countries
Introduction & key dates
1947, first developed
Examples of species treated
General livestock
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Isomeric
Chemical formula
C₁₀H₁₀Cl₈
Canonical SMILES
C1C2C(C(C(C1(Cl)Cl)(C2(CCl)C(Cl)Cl)CCl)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
-
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
YNEKMCSWRMRXIR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10H10Cl8/c11-2-8(7(15)16)4-1-10(17,18)9(8,3-12)6(14)5(4)13/h4-7H,1-3H2
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Veterinary substance type
Insecticide
Substance groups
Organochloride insecticide; Organochlorine acaricide
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
A non-systemic contact and stomach insecticide. It acts on the neurons, causing an imbalance in sodium and potassium ions, similar to that of the cyclodiene insecticides.
Molecular targets
-
CAS RN
8001-35-2
EC number
232-283-3
CIPAC number
23
US EPA chemical code
080501
PubChem CID
58167
CLP index number
602-044-00-1
ATCvet Code
-
Therapeutic Class
-
Controlled Drug?
-
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
-
Molecular mass
413.96
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
2,2,5,6-tetrachloro-1,7-bis(chloromethyl)-7-(dichloromethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane
CAS name
2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-Octachlorobornane
Other status information
OSPAR soc; POP - regulated by Stockholm Convention; Severe Marine Pollutant; Rotterdam Convention (Class O) - subject to PIC regulations; PAN Bad Actor
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Yellow to amber waxy solid
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
- - - -
Formulation and application details
Usually formulated as a wettable power, dust or emulsifiable concentrate
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
3.0
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
4500000
V3 V = ChemID Online Databases; Chemspider; PubChem. (ChemID )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Benzene
-
4500000
V3 V = ChemID Online Databases; Chemspider; PubChem. (ChemID )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Carbon tetrachloride
-
4500000
V3 V = ChemID Online Databases; Chemspider; PubChem. (ChemID )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Xylene
-
2800000
V3 V = ChemID Online Databases; Chemspider; PubChem. (ChemID )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Kerosene
-
Melting point (°C)
78
V2 V = ChemID Online Databases; Chemspider; PubChem. (ChemID )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Range 65-90
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.00 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.3
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
High
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
Soluble
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Data type
Regulatory data - observed in metabolism and farm animal feeding studies
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.65
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.67
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous data from online sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
6.08 X 10-01
V3 V = ChemID Online Databases; Chemspider; PubChem. (ChemID )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
365
L1 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
1 = Estimated data with little or no verification
Very persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
9
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
Literature sources highly variable: DT₅₀ 2 months and 14 years; US sources: 9 days (DW3, US3); Field DT₅₀ 9 to 500 days (R3)
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
F2 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Moderately mobile
Koc
295
Notes and range
Literature range for log Koc = 2.47-5.00; Other sources: Koc 100000 mL g⁻¹ (US2)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
1.46 Calculated Low leachability
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
76000
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
High potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Known soil metabolites
Metabolite
Major/Minor fraction
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Notes
strobane (Ref: ENT 19442)
- - -
Known groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
50
V3 V = ChemID Online Databases; Chemspider; PubChem. (ChemID )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 15
V3 V = ChemID Online Databases; Chemspider; PubChem. (ChemID )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anas platyrhynchos
High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
0.144
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Apis mellifera
High
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 19.1
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Apis mellifera
Moderate
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other bee species (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
0.216
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Megachile rotundata
High
Mode of exposure
Contact
Other bee species (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
0.0023
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Nomia melanderi
High
Mode of exposure
Contact
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.0044
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Lepomis macrochirus
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.00005
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ictalurus punctatus
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.0141
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.016
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.0021
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Americamysis bahia
High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.38
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
50
V3 V = ChemID Online Databases; Chemspider; PubChem. (ChemID )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Possible risk via food contamination
Occupational
Absorbed by the intact skin and from the gastrointestinal tract
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
IARC group 2B carcinogen; CLP data - suspected carcinogen; US NTP - suspected carcinogen; OSHA - anticipated human carcinogen; US EPA - probable human carcinogen
Ingestion may be fatal
May cause convulsions
Potential kidney toxicant
May cause allergic bronchopneumonia
Endocrine issues - Increase of estrogen-sensitive cells proliferation
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Corrosive
Not compatible with strongly alkaline pesticides
IMDG Transport Hazard Class 6.1
CLP classification 2013
Health: H301, H312, H315, H335, H351
Environment: H400, H410
WHO Classification
Not classified: Obsolete (Not classified: Obsolete)
UN Number
UN2996
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group II (moderate danger)
Shelf-life, storage, stability and reactivity
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
camphechlor
French
bamphéchlore
German
Camphechlor
Danish
camphechlor, toxaphen
Italian
camfeclor
Spanish
camfeclor
Greek
-
Polish
kamfechlor
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
toxafeen
Norwegian
-

Record last updated: 13/10/2023
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242