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Kaolin
Last updated: 18/01/2023
(Also known as: argilla; bentone; china clay; porcelain clay; neokaolin ; aluminium silicate hydrate; hydratd aluminium silicate)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
 
Ecotoxicity
Low alert:
Birds acute ecotoxicity: Low; Fish acute ecotoxicity: Low; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Low; Bees acute contact ecotoxicity: Low; Bees acute oral ecotoxicity: Low; Earthworms acute ecotoxicity: Low
Human health
High alert:
Carcinogen; Reproduction/development effects
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Used as a feed supplement for livestock to prevent diarrheal diseases
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1997, first registered as pesticide USA
Examples of species treated
Pigs, Dogs, Cats, Poultry
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
H₄Al₂O₉Si₂
Canonical SMILES
O.O.O=[Al]O[Si](=O)O[Si](=O)O[Al]=O
Isomeric SMILES
-
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
NLYAJNPCOHFWQQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/2Al.O5Si2.2H2O.2O/c;;1-6(2)5-7(3)4;;;;/h;;;2*1H2;;/q2*+1;-2;;;;
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Veterinary substance type
Feed additive
Other constituent type
Coating agent
Substance groups
Inorganic compound
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Natural
Mode of action
Mainly non-toxic mode of action, acts via its physical properties but may also interfere with feeding behaviour and egg-laying
Molecular targets
-
CAS RN
1332-58-7
EC number
310-194-1
CIPAC number
None allocated
US EPA chemical code
100104
PubChem CID
56841936
CLP index number
No data found
ATCvet Code
QA07AA51
Therapeutic Class
Alimentary tract & metabolism: Intestinal antiinfectives
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
No data
Molecular mass
258.16
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
oxo-oxoalumanyloxy-[oxo(oxoalumanyloxy)silyl]oxysilane;dihydrate
CAS name
aluminium silicate hydrate
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Off-white coloured powder
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Kaogel VP 19.72% w/v Oral Suspension Pfizer Ltd UK National authorisation Authorised veterinary medicine for general sale (AVM - GSL)
Kaolin Poultice B.P KL Pharmaceutical Ltd UK National authorisation Authorised veterinary medicine for general sale (AVM - GSL)
Formulation and application details
-
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
5.0
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
1760
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
Not applicable - -
Log P
Not applicable
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Not applicable
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
2.6
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
1.620
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
1000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Very persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
Kaolin is a non-degradable natural component of the environment
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
Kaolin is a natural component of the environment
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
20
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low risk
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2000
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Eisenia foetida
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 100
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Apis mellifera
Low
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 100
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Apis mellifera
Low
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 2500
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 2500
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
> 2500
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Unknown species
Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
5000
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, has a short half-life and is nearly all excreted unchanged
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Inhalation may cause pneumoconiosis (Kaolinosis)
May produce gastrointestinal disturbances as high doses
Possible respiratory sensitiser
May cause toxic responses via inhalation
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H315, H319, H334, H335, H350, H370, H372, H373
WHO Classification
NL (Not listed)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
kaolin
French
kaolin
German
Porzellanerde
Danish
kaolin
Italian
caolino
Spanish
caolin
Greek
kaoline
Polish
-
Swedish
kaolin
Hungarian
porcelanfold
Dutch
kaolien

Record last updated: 18/01/2023
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242