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Benzyl benzoate
Last updated: 22/01/2023
(Also known as: benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester; benzyl phenylformate; benzoic acid benzyl ester; benzylbenzenecarboxylate; benzylis benzoas)

SUMMARY
Benzyl benzoate is used mainly as a non-agricultural pesticide although it also has other manufacuring application. It has a low aqueous solubility and is moderately volatile. Little information is available regarding its environmental fate. Benzyl benzoate is moderately toxic to birds and fish. It has a low oral mammalian toxicity and a neurotoxin as well as being a recognised irritant.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
 
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Birds acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Human health
High alert:
Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Most common use is for the treatment of "Sweet Itch" in horses. Is also sometiems used to treat mites responsible for causing scabies.
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
-
Examples of species treated
Horses
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₁₄H₁₂O₂
Canonical SMILES
C1=CC=C(C=C1)COC(=O)C2=CC=CC=C2
Isomeric SMILES
-
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
SESFRYSPDFLNCH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C14H12O2/c15-14(13-9-5-2-6-10-13)16-11-12-7-3-1-4-8-12/h1-10H,11H2
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Veterinary substance type
Antiparasitic
Other constituent type
Solvent
Substance groups
Bridged diphenyl insecticide
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Attacks the nervous system of mites
Molecular targets
-
CAS RN
120-51-4
EC number
204-402-9
CIPAC number
None allocated
US EPA chemical code
009501
PubChem CID
2345
CLP index number
607-085-00-9
ATCvet Code
QP53AX11
Therapeutic Class
Antiparasitic products, insecticides & repellents: Ecoparasiticides, insecticides & repellents
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed substance (Table 1: All food producing species)
Molecular mass
212.25
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
benzyl benzoate
IUPAC name
benzyl benzoate
CAS name
phenylmethyl benzoate
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Colourless to pale yellow oily liquid with pleasant aromatic odour
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Killitch 25% w/v cutaneous emulsion Carr Day and Martin Ltd UK National authorisation Authorised veterinary medicine for general sale (AVM - GSL)
Savlon Veterinary Antiseptic concentrate Schering-Plough Ltd No UK authorisation for use Not applicable
Bensyleasi Easivet No UK authorisation for use Not applicable
Formulation and application details
Veterinary formulations are usually emulsions for topical application. Non-agricultural formulations include foams and powders.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
15.4
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
at 25 °C
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
Miscible
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Ether
-
Miscible
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Ethanol
-
Miscible
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Methanol
-
Miscible
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Acetone
-
Melting point (°C)
18
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
-
Boiling point (°C)
323
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
158
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
(closed cup)
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
9.33 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.97
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.12
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
29.86
CA2 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
0.284
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
1.5681
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known soil and groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
benzoic acid - Human - -
benzyl alcohol - Human - -
hippuric acid - Human - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2800
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2000
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
4.6
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
Low (class I) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2800
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
B3 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ > 500 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
No unacceptable risks identified
Occupational
May be absorbed through the skin
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Metabolised and excreted mainly in the urine
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause nausea and vomiting
In large doses may cause skin blistering, crusting & scaling
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Combustible
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
Incompatible with alkalis and oxidising agents
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
NL (Not listed)
UN Number
3082
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group III (minor danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
benzyl benzoate
French
-
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
-
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 22/01/2023
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242